SYNNEX Corporation
SYNNEX CORP (Form: 10-K, Received: 01/26/2017 16:21:12)
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
  _____________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
  _____________________________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended November 30, 2016
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                       
Commission File Number: 001-31892
  _____________________________________________________________________________
SNXLOGOA07.JPG
SYNNEX CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
  _____________________________________________________________________________
Delaware
 
94-2703333
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
44201 Nobel Drive
Fremont, California
 
94538
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(510) 656-3333
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classes:
 
Name of Stock Exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes   x    No   ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No   x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes   x     No   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes   x     No   ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one).
Large accelerated filer  x
Accelerated filer  ¨
Non-accelerated filer ¨
Smaller reporting company ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes   ¨    No   x
The aggregate market value of Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (based upon the closing sale price on the New York Stock Exchange as of May 31, 2016 , the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $2,633,857,874 . Shares held by each executive officer, director and by each person who owns 10% or more of the outstanding Common Stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of January 20, 2017 , there were 39,897,696 shares of Common Stock, $0.001 per share par value, outstanding.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Items 10 (as to directors and Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance), 11, 12 (as to Beneficial Ownership), 13 and 14 of Part III incorporate by reference information from the registrant’s proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with the solicitation of proxies for the registrant’s 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on March 21, 2017 .


Table of Contents

SYNNEX CORPORATION
 
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2016 FORM 10-K
 
 
 
 
 
 
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PART I  
When used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Report”), the words “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “allows,” “can,” “may,” “designed,” “will,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These are statements that relate to future periods and include statements about market trends, our business model and our services, our market strategy, including expansion of our product and service lines, our infrastructure, our investment in our information technology, or IT, systems, our employee hiring, impact of MiTAC Holdings Corporation, or MiTAC Holdings, ownership interest in us, our revenue, sources of revenue and operating results, our gross margins, our inventory, competition, including with Synnex Technology International Corp., our future needs for additional financing, the likely sources for such funding and the impact of such funding, concentration of customers and suppliers, customer contract terms, customer forecasts, adequacy of our facilities, our legal proceedings, our operations and trends related thereto, our international operations, foreign currency exchange rates, expansion of our operations and related effects, including our Concentrix business, our strategic acquisitions and divestitures of businesses and assets, including the impact of the Minacs acquisition on our business and on our goodwill, adequacy of our cash resources to meet our capital needs, our debt and financing arrangements, cash held by our foreign subsidiaries, our tax liabilities, adequacy of our disclosure controls and procedures, dependency on personnel, pricing pressures, competition, impact of rules and regulations affecting public companies, impact of our pricing policies, impact of economic and industry trends, changes to the market in which we compete, impact of our accounting policies and recently issued accounting pronouncements, impact of inventory repurchase obligations and commitments and contingencies, our tax rates, impact of any impairment of our goodwill and intangible assets, our share repurchase and dividend program, and statements regarding our securitization programs, term loans and revolving credit lines and our investments in working capital, personnel, facilities and operations. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those risks discussed herein, as well as the seasonality of the buying patterns of our customers, concentration of sales to large customers, dependence upon and trends in capital spending budgets in the IT, and consumer electronics, or CE, industries, fluctuations in general economic conditions and other risk factors contained below under Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.” These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof. We expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.
  In the sections of this Report entitled “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” all references to “SYNNEX,” “we,” “us,” “our” or the “Company” mean SYNNEX Corporation and its subsidiaries, except where it is made clear that the term means only the parent company or one of its segments.  
SYNNEX, the SYNNEX Logo, CONCENTRIX, MINACS and all other SYNNEX company, product and services names and slogans are trademarks or registered trademarks of SYNNEX Corporation. SYNNEX, the SYNNEX Logo, CONCENTRIX and MINACS Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Other names and marks are the property of their respective owners.
Item 1.     Business
We are a Fortune 500 corporation and a leading business process services company, providing a comprehensive range of distribution, logistics and integration services for the technology industry and providing outsourced services focused on customer engagement strategy to a broad range of enterprises. We are organized to provide our products and services through two reportable business segments: Technology Solutions and Concentrix. Our Technology Solutions segment distributes peripherals, IT systems including data center server and storage solutions, system components, software, networking/communications/security equipment, consumer electronics, or CE, and complementary products. Within our Technology Solutions segment, we also provide systems design and integration solutions. Our Concentrix segment offers a portfolio of strategic solutions and end-to-end business services focused on customer engagement strategy, process optimization, technology innovation, front and back-office automation and business transformation to clients in ten identified industry verticals.
In our Technology Solutions segment, we distribute more than 30,000 technology products (as measured by active SKUs) from more than 300 IT, CE and original equipment manufacturers, or OEM suppliers to more than 20,000 resellers, system integrators, and retailers throughout the United States, Canada and Japan. We purchase peripherals, IT systems, system components, software, networking/communications/security equipment, CE and complementary products from our suppliers and sell them to our reseller and retail customers. We perform a similar function for our distribution of licensed software products. Our reseller customers include value-added resellers, or VARs, corporate resellers, government resellers, system integrators, direct marketers, and national and regional retailers. We combine our core strengths in distribution with demand generation, supply chain management and design and integration solutions to help our customers achieve greater efficiencies in time to market, cost minimization, real-time linkages in the supply chain and after-market product support. We also provide

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comprehensive IT solutions in key vertical markets such as government and healthcare and we provide specialized service offerings that increase efficiencies in the areas of print management, renewals, networking, logistics services and supply chain management. Additionally, we provide our customers with systems design and integration solutions for data center servers and networking solutions built specific to our customers’ workloads and data center environments.
Our Technology Solutions business is characterized by low gross profit as a percentage of revenue, or gross margin, and low income from operations as a percentage of revenue, or operating margin. The market for IT and CE products is generally characterized by declining unit prices and short product life cycles. We set our sales price based on the market supply and demand characteristics for each particular product or bundle of products we distribute and services we provide. 
In our Technology Solutions segment, we are highly dependent on the end-market demand for IT and CE products, and on our partners’ strategic initiatives and business models. This end-market demand is influenced by many factors including the introduction of new IT and CE products and software by OEMs, replacement cycles for existing IT and CE products, trends toward cloud computing, overall economic growth and general business activity. A difficult and challenging economic environment may also lead to consolidation or decline in the IT and CE industries and increased price-based competition. 
In our Concentrix segment, we provide a comprehensive range of strategic services and solutions to enhance our clients’ customer life cycles to acquire, support and renew customer relationships, to automate and optimize processes, to maximize the value of every customer interaction and to improve business outcomes. Our portfolio of services includes end-to-end process outsourcing to customers in various industry vertical markets delivered through omni-channels that include both voice and non-voice mediums and in more than 40 languages. Our portfolio of solutions and services support our clients and their customers globally. In fiscal year 2016, we acquired Minacs, which provides greater scale and expanded our services in key industries such as automotive and service offerings such as marketing optimization.
Our Concentrix segment generates revenue from performing services that are generally tied to our clients’ products and services and how they are received in the marketplace. Any shift in business or size of the market for our customers’ products, any failure of technology or failure of acceptance of our customers’ products in the market may impact our business. The employee turnover rate in this business and the risk of losing experienced employees is high. Higher turnover rates can increase costs and decrease operating efficiencies and productivity. 
We have been in business since 1980 and are headquartered in Fremont, California. We have significant operations in North and South America, Asia-Pacific and Europe. We were originally incorporated in the State of California as COMPAC Microelectronics, Inc. in November 1980, and we changed our name to SYNNEX Information Technologies, Inc. in February 1994. We later reincorporated in the State of Delaware under the name of SYNNEX Corporation in October 2003. As of November 30, 2016 , we had over 110,000 full-time and temporary employees worldwide.
Financial information by segment is provided in our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report.
Our Products and Suppliers  
In our Technology Solutions segment, we distribute a broad line of IT products, including peripherals, IT systems, system components, software and networking equipment from more than 300 OEM suppliers, enabling us to offer comprehensive solutions to our reseller and retail customers. Our Technology Solutions segment represented 89% , 89% and 92% of our consolidated revenue for fiscal years 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Our product offerings also include systems design and full rack integration solutions, build-to-order, and configure-to-order assemblies.
For fiscal years 2016 , 2015 and 2014 , our product mix by category in the Technology Solutions segment was in the following ranges:  
Product Category:
 
Peripherals
29% - 34%
IT Systems
29% 
System Components and Integration Solutions
20% - 25%
Software
11%
Networking Equipment
6% - 7%
Our suppliers include leading peripherals, IT systems, system components, software, networking equipment and CE manufacturers. Our primary OEM suppliers are Asus Tek Computer Inc., Dell, Inc. HP Inc. (formerly Hewlett-Packard

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Company) (“HP”), Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company, Intel Corporation, Lenovo Group Ltd, Microsoft Corporation, Panasonic Corporation, Seagate Technologies LLC and Xerox Corporation.
Our largest OEM supplier is HP. Revenue from the sale of products and services provided by HP represented approximately 17% , 25% and 25% of our consolidated revenue for fiscal years 2016 , 2015 and 2014 , respectively. Before November 1, 2015, revenue from HP included the sale of products and services from both HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company. As is typical with our OEM supplier agreements, our United States Business Development Partner Agreement with HP is short-term and may be terminated without cause upon short notice. In the event of any breach of the agreement by us, HP may terminate the agreement and we may be required to refund HP any discounts or program payments paid during the period we were in breach of the agreement and reimburse HP for reasonable attorneys’ fees. In the event the agreement is terminated for cause or if we fail to perform our obligations under the agreement, our agreement with HP for the resale of products, support and services will automatically terminate upon such default or termination. If either party becomes insolvent or bankrupt, the other party may terminate the agreement without notice and cancel any unfulfilled obligations, except for payment obligations. Some of our subsidiaries also have territorial supplier agreements with subsidiaries of HP located in the respective countries. 
We have distribution agreements with most of our suppliers, including HP. These agreements usually provide for nonexclusive distribution rights and pertain to specific geographic territories. The agreements are also generally short-term, subject to periodic renewal, and often contain provisions permitting termination by either our supplier or us without cause upon relatively short notice. An OEM supplier that elects to terminate a distribution agreement will generally repurchase its products carried in our inventory.
Our Technology Solutions business subjects us to the risk that the value of our inventory will be affected adversely by suppliers’ price reductions or by technological changes affecting the usefulness or desirability of the products comprising our inventory. Many of our OEM suppliers offer us limited protection from the loss in value of our inventory due to technological change or a supplier’s price reduction. Under many of these agreements, we have a limited period of time to return or exchange products or claim price protection credits. We monitor our inventory levels and attempt to time our purchases to maximize our protection under supplier programs. 
Our Customers  
In our Technology Solutions segment, we distribute IT products to more than 20,000 resellers, system integrators and retailers. Resellers are classified primarily by their end-user customers. End-users include large corporations or enterprises, federal, state and local governments, small/medium sized businesses, or SMBs, and individual consumers. In addition, resellers vary greatly in size and geographic reach. Our reseller customers buy from us and other distributors. Our larger reseller customers also buy certain products directly from OEM suppliers. System integrators offer services in addition to product resale, primarily in systems customization, integration, and deployment. Retailers serve mostly individual end-users and to a small degree, small office/home office customers. We also provide system design and integration solutions for data center servers built for our customers’ data center environments.
In our Concentrix segment, we serve over 450 clients, primarily in ten industry verticals: automotive, banking & financial services, consumer electronics, energy & public sector, healthcare, insurance, media & communications, retail & e-commerce, technology, and travel, transportation & tourism.
In fiscal year 2016, one customer accounted for 12% of our consolidated revenue. In fiscal years 2015 and 2014, no customer accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated revenue. We do not believe that the loss of any single customer would have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole.
Our Services and Solutions  
We offer a variety of business process services to our customers. These services can be purchased individually or they can be purchased in combination with others in the form of supply chain solutions and after-market product support. The two major categories of services and solutions include Technology Solutions and Concentrix: 
Technology Solutions. We have sophisticated pick, pack and ship operations, which allows us to efficiently receive shipments from our OEM suppliers and quickly fill orders for our reseller and retail customers. We generally stock or otherwise have access to the inventory of our OEM suppliers to satisfy the demands of our reseller and retail customers. In addition, we design and integrate energy efficient and cost effective data center servers which are built specific to the data center environments and actual workloads of our large scale data center customers.

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The above services are complemented by the following: 
Systems Design and Integration Solutions. We provide our customers with systems design and full rack integration solutions, build-to-order, and configure-to-order assembly capabilities. In both of these cases, we offer design, integration, test and other production value-added solutions such as thermal testing, power-draw efficiency testing, burn-in, quality and logistics support.
Logistics Services. We provide logistics support to our reseller customers such as outsourced fulfillment, virtual distribution and direct ship to end-users. Other logistics support activities we provide include generation of customized shipping documents, multi-level serial number tracking for customized, configured products and online order and shipment tracking. We also offer full turn-key logistics solutions designed to address the needs of large volume or specialty logistics services. Our full turn-key service offering is modular in nature and is designed to cover all aspects of the logistics life cycle including, transportation management, inventory optimization, complementary product matching, reverse logistics, asset refurbishment and disposal and strategic procurement.  
Online Services. We maintain electronic data interchange, or EDI, extensible markup language or XML, web-based communication links and mobile applications with many of our reseller and retail customers. These links improve the speed and efficiency of our transactions with our customers by enabling them to search for products, check inventory availability and prices, configure systems, place and track orders, receive invoices, review account status and process returns. We also have web-based application software that allows our customers or their end-user customers to order software and take delivery online.  
Financing Services. We offer our reseller customers a wide range of financing options, including net terms, third party leasing, floor plan financing and letters-of-credit backed financing and arrangements where we collect payments directly from the end-user. The availability and terms of our financing services are subject to our credit policies or those of third party financing providers to our customers.  
Marketing Services. We offer our OEM suppliers a full range of marketing activities targeting resellers, system integrators and retailers including direct mail, external media advertising, reseller product training, targeted telemarketing campaigns, national and regional trade shows, trade groups, database analysis, print on demand services and web-based marketing.  
Concentrix. Our Concentrix segment represented 11% of our consolidated revenue in fiscal year 2016 , 11% in fiscal year 2015 and 8% in fiscal year 2014 . We offer a portfolio of comprehensive solutions and end-to-end business services to enhance our clients’ customer life cycles, to acquire, support and renew customer relationships, to automate and optimize processes, to maximize the value of every customer interaction, and to improve business outcomes, primarily in ten identified industry verticals. Our Concentrix segment portfolio also includes technology assets and embedded analytics. We operate over 120 delivery centers and administrative facilities in numerous countries throughout North and South America, Asia-Pacific and Europe. Services are provided from these global locations to customers worldwide in more than 40 languages.
Sales and Marketing  
In our Technology Solutions segment, we serve our large commercial, government reseller, and retail customers through dedicated sales professionals. We market to smaller resellers and OEMs through dedicated regional sales teams. In addition, we have dedicated product management and business development specialists that focus on the sale and promotion of products and services of selected suppliers or for specific end-market verticals. These specialists are also directly involved in establishing new relationships with leading OEMs to create demand for their products and services and with resellers for their customers’ needs. We also have a direct sales approach for our design and integration solutions business. Our sales and marketing professionals are complemented by members of our executive management team who are integral in identifying potential new customer opportunities, promoting sales growth and ensuring customer satisfaction. We have sales and marketing professionals in close geographic proximity to our reseller, retail and OEM customers.  
In our Concentrix segment, we market our services through a sales force organized by industry vertical and geography. The length of our selling cycle varies depending on the type of engagement. Our efforts may begin in response to our lead generation program, a perceived opportunity, a reference by an existing client, a request for proposal or otherwise. The sales cycle varies depending on the type of services work as well as whether there is an existing relationship with the client.
We have designated client partners or global relationship managers for each of our strategic relationships. The relationship manager is supported by process improvement, quality, transition, finance, human resources, information technology and industry or subject matter expert teams to ensure the best possible solution is provided to our clients.

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We also strive to foster relationships between our senior leadership team and our clients’ senior management. These “C-level” relationships ensure that both parties are focused on establishing priorities, aligning objectives and driving client value from the top down. High-level executive relationships have been particularly constructive as a means of increasing business from our existing clients. It also provides us with a forum for addressing client concerns. We constantly measure our client satisfaction levels to ensure that we maintain high service levels for each client.
Our Operations  
In our Technology Solutions segment, we operate approximately 40 distribution and administrative facilities in the United States, Canada, Japan, China and Mexico. Our distribution processes are highly automated to reduce errors, ensure timely order fulfillment and enhance the efficiency of our warehouse operations and back office administration. Our distribution facilities are geographically dispersed to be near reseller customers and their end-users. This decentralized, regional strategy enables us to benefit from lower shipping costs and shorter delivery lead times to our customers. Furthermore, we track several performance measurements to continuously improve the efficiency and accuracy of our distribution operations. Our regional locations also enable us to make local deliveries and provide will-call fulfillment to more customers than if our distribution operations were more centralized, resulting in better service to our customers. Our workforce is comprised of permanent and temporary employees, enabling us to respond to short-term changes in order activity. 
Our proprietary IT systems and processes enable us to automate many of our distribution operations. We use radio frequency and bar code scanning technologies in all of our warehouse operations to maintain real-time inventory records, facilitate frequent cycle counts and improve the accuracy of order fulfillment.
To enhance the accuracy of our distribution order fulfillment and protect our inventory from shrinkage, our distribution systems also incorporate numerous controls. These controls include order weight checks, bar code scanning, and serial number profile verification. We also use digital video imaging to record our small package shipping activities by order. These images and other warehouse and shipping data are available online to our customer service representatives, enabling us to quickly respond to order inquiries by our customers. 
We operate our principal system design and integration solutions facilities in the United States and we operate an integration facility in the United Kingdom. We generally design and integrate IT systems, data center servers and networking solutions and IT appliances, by incorporating system components purchased directly from vendors or obtained from our distribution inventory. Additionally, we perform other production value-added services, including thermal testing, power-draw efficiency testing, burn-in, quality and logistics support. Some of our design and integration solutions facilities are ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 14001:2004 certified.
Concentrix has global delivery capability which allows us to scale people and other resources from around the world, including foreign language fluency, proximity to clients and time-zone advantages. A critical component of this capability is our over 120 delivery and administrative centers in 24 countries throughout North and South America, Asia-Pacific and Europe. Our delivery centers improve the efficiency of our engagement teams through the reuse of processes, solution designs and infrastructure by leveraging the experience of delivery center professionals. Services are provided from these global locations to customers worldwide in multiple languages. These services are supported by proprietary technology to enable efficient and secure customer contact through various methods including voice, chat, web, email, social media and digital print. Some of our Indian delivery centers are ISO 14001:2015 (Environmental Management System) certified and 12 of our delivery centers around the world are certified to COPC (Customer Operation Performance Center) OSP standard.
International Operations  
Approximately 27% , 26% and 28% of our consolidated revenue for fiscal years ended November 30, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, originated outside of the United States. Approximately 59% and 52% of our net property and equipment were located outside the United States as of November 30, 2016 and 2015 , respectively. Our end market strategy for our Technology Solutions business, while focused on North America, is expanded internationally on a selective basis in order to provide our distribution capabilities to OEMs in locations that meet their regional requirements. A key element in our business strategy has been to locate our Concentrix services in markets that are strategic to our customer requirements and cost beneficial.
Sales concentrations in foreign jurisdictions subject us to various risks, including the impact of changes in the value of these foreign currencies relative to the US Dollar, which in turn can impact reported sales.
Additional financial information related to foreign and domestic operations is provided in our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report.

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Seasonality
Our operating results in the Technology Solutions segment are affected by the seasonality of the IT and CE products industries. We have historically experienced higher sales in our fourth fiscal quarter due to patterns in capital budgeting, federal government spending and purchasing cycles of our customers and end-users. These patterns may not be repeated in subsequent periods.
Revenue in our Concentrix segment is typically higher in our second and fourth fiscal quarters based on seasonal patterns in our clients’ business.
Purchasing 
In our Technology Solutions segment, product cost represents our single largest expense and IT and CE product inventory is one of our largest working capital investments. Furthermore, product procurement from our OEM suppliers is a highly complex process that involves incentive programs, rebate programs, price protection, volume and early payment discounts and other arrangements. Consequently, efficient and effective purchasing operations are critical to our success.
Our purchasing group works closely with many areas of our organization, especially our product managers who work closely with our OEM suppliers and our sales force, to understand the volume and mix of IT products that should be purchased.
In addition, the purchasing group utilizes an internally developed, proprietary information systems application tool that further aids in forecasting future product demand based on several factors, including historical sales levels, expected product life cycle and current and projected economic conditions. We may also rely on our receipt of good-faith, non-binding, customer forecasts. We maintain electronic data interchange, or EDI, connection with our OEM suppliers to send purchase orders, receive purchase order status and receive notification once the product has shipped from our supplier. Our information system tool also tracks warehouse and channel inventory levels and open purchase orders on a real-time basis enabling us to stock inventory at a regional level closer to the customer as well as to actively manage our working capital resources. This level of automation promotes greater efficiencies of inventory management by replenishing and turning inventory, as well as placing purchase orders on a more frequent basis. Furthermore, our system tool also allows for automated checks and controls to prevent the generation of inaccurate orders. 
Managing our OEM supplier incentive programs is another critical function of our purchasing and product management teams. We attempt to maximize the benefits of incentives, rebates and volume and early payment discounts that our OEM suppliers offer us from time to time. We carefully evaluate these supplier incentive benefits relative to our product handling and carrying costs so that we do not over-invest in our inventory. We also closely monitor inventory levels on a product-by-product basis and plan purchases to take advantage of OEM supplier provided price protection. By managing inventory levels and monitoring customer purchase patterns at each of our regional distribution facilities, we believe we can minimize our shipping costs by stocking products near our resellers and retailers, and their end-user customers. 
Financial Services  
In our Technology Solutions segment, we offer various financing options to our customers as well as prepayment, credit card and cash on delivery terms. In issuing credit terms to our reseller and retail customers, we closely and regularly monitor their creditworthiness through our information systems, credit ratings information and periodic detailed credit file reviews by our financial services staff. We have also purchased credit insurance in some geographies to further control credit risks. Finally, we establish reserves for estimated credit losses in the normal course of business based on the overall quality and aging of our accounts receivable portfolio, the existence of a limited amount of credit insurance and specifically identified customer risks.
We also sell to certain reseller customers pursuant to third party floor plan financing. The expenses charged by these financing companies are subsidized either by our OEM suppliers or paid by us. We generally receive payment from these financing companies within 15 to 30 days from the date of sale, depending on the specific arrangement. 
Information Technology  
Within our Technology Solutions segment, our IT systems manage the entire order cycle, including processing customer orders, customer billing and payment tracking. These internally developed IT systems make our operations more efficient and provide visibility into our operations. We believe our IT infrastructure is scalable to support further growth. We continue to enhance and invest in our IT systems to improve product and inventory management, streamline order and fulfillment processes, and increase operational flexibility. Within our Concentrix segment, we invest in IT systems and infrastructure to enhance workforce management and improve productivity. Our Minacs acquisition in 2016 has provided us enhanced technology platforms that accelerate our Marketing Optimization and Internet of Things solutions.

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To allow our customers and suppliers to communicate and transact business with us in an efficient and consistent manner, we have implemented a mix of proprietary and off-the-shelf software programs that integrate our IT systems with those of our customers and suppliers. In particular, we maintain EDI, XML, web-based communication links and mobile platform applications with many of our reseller and retail customers to enable them to search for products, check real-time pricing, inventory availability and specifications, place and track orders, receive invoices and process returns.
Competition  
We operate in a highly competitive global environment. The IT product industry is characterized by intense competition, based primarily on product availability, credit terms, price, speed and accuracy of delivery, effectiveness of sales and marketing programs, ability to tailor specific solutions to customer needs, quality and depth of product lines, pre and post-sale technical support, flexibility and timely response to design changes, technological capabilities and product quality, service and support. We compete with a variety of regional, national and international IT product distributors and manufacturers. 
Our major competitors in our Technology Solutions segment include Arrow Electronics, Inc., Avnet, Inc., Ingram Micro, Inc., ScanSource, Inc., Tech Data Corporation and WestconGroup Inc. and, to a lesser extent, regional distributors. We also face competition from our OEM suppliers that sell directly to resellers, retailers and end-users. The distribution industry has historically undergone, and continues to undergo, consolidation. Over the years, a number of providers within the IT distribution industry exited or merged with other providers. For example, during fiscal year 2016, Ingram Micro Inc. was acquired and became part of HNA Group and Tech Data Corporation announced its acquisition of Avnet Inc.’s Technology Solutions operating group. We have participated in this consolidation through our acquisitions of Supercom Canada Limited, Marubeni Infotec Corporation, Jack of All Games and New Age Electronics, and we continue to evaluate other opportunities.
As we enter new business areas, we may encounter increased competition from our current competitors and/or new competitors. Some of our competitors are substantially larger and may have greater financial, operating, manufacturing and marketing resources than us. Some of our competitors may have broader geographic breadth and range of services than us. Some may have more developed relationships with their existing customers. We attempt to offset our comparative scale differences by focusing on a limited number of leading OEMs in the Technology Solutions segment, by running a more efficient and low cost operation, and by offering a high level of value-added and customer services in both the Technology Solutions and Concentrix segments.
In our Concentrix segment, we operate in a highly competitive and rapidly evolving global marketplace. Our competitors are both regional players as well as global companies. Our major competitors include Accenture, Convergys Corporation, Genpact Limited, SITEL Worldwide Corporation (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Groupe Acticall), Sutherland Global Services, Inc. (a privately owned company), Sykes Enterprises Inc., Teleperformance and TeleTech Holdings, Inc. In the future, we may face greater competition due to the consolidation of business process outsourcing providers. Consolidation activity may result in competitors with greater scale, a broader footprint or more attractive pricing than ours. For example, during fiscal year 2016, we acquired Minacs to expand our services in key industries such as automotive and service offerings such as marketing optimization. In addition, a client or potential client may choose not to outsource its business, by setting up captive outsourcing operations or by performing formerly outsourced services for themselves.
We constantly seek to expand our business into areas primarily related to our core distribution and outsourced business services as well as other support, logistics and related value-added services.
Employees  
As of November 30, 2016 , we had approximately 105,500 full-time employees. Given the variability in our business and the quick response time required by customers, it is critical that we are able to rapidly ramp-up and ramp-down our operational capabilities to maximize efficiency. As a result, we use temporary or contract workers, who totaled approximately 4,500 , on a full-time equivalent basis, as of November 30, 2016 . Except for a small number of our employees in certain countries, generally required by local regulations or brought in through acquisitions, our employees are not represented by a labor union, nor are they covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our employee relations to be good. 
Available Information
Our website is http://www.synnex.com. We make available free of charge, on or through our website, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, if any, or other filings filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing or furnishing these reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Information contained on our website is not a part of this Report. We have adopted a code of ethics applicable to our employees including our principal executive, financial and accounting officers, and it is available free of charge, on our website’s investor relations page. 

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The SEC maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, if any, or other filings filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, and our proxy and information statements. All reports that we file with the SEC may be read and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC, 20549. Information about the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.
Item 1A. Risk Factors  
The following are certain risk factors that could affect our business, financial results and results of operations. These risk factors should be considered in connection with evaluating the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K because these factors could cause the actual results and conditions to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Before you invest in our Company, you should know that making such an investment involves some risks, including the risks described below. The risks that have been highlighted here are not the only ones that we face. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be negatively affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business  
We anticipate that our revenue and operating results will fluctuate, which could adversely affect the enterprise value of our Company and our securities.  
Our operating results have fluctuated and will fluctuate in the future as a result of many factors, including: 
the impact of the business acquisitions and dispositions we make;
general economic conditions and level of IT and CE spending and outsourced business services;
the loss or consolidation of one or more of our significant OEM suppliers or customers;
consolidation of our Concentrix competitors, including insourcing by clients;
market acceptance, quality, pricing, availability and useful life of our products and services, as well as the mix of our products and services sold;
competitive conditions in our industry;
pricing, margin and other terms with our OEM suppliers;
decline in inventory value as a result of product obsolescence and market acceptance;
variations in our levels of excess inventory, vendor reserves and doubtful accounts;
fluctuations in rates in the currencies in which we transact;
changes in the terms of OEM supplier-inventory protections, such as price protection and return rights; and
the expansion of our design and integration solutions sales and operations, globally.
Although we attempt to control our expense levels, these levels are based, in part, on anticipated revenue. Therefore, we may not be able to control spending in a timely manner to compensate for any unexpected revenue shortfall. 
Our operating results in the Technology Solutions segment also are affected by the seasonality of the IT and CE products and services industry. We have historically experienced higher sales in our fourth fiscal quarter due to patterns in the capital budgeting, federal government spending and purchasing cycles of end-users. Revenue in our Concentrix segment is typically higher in our second and fourth fiscal quarters based on seasonal patterns in our clients’ business. These patterns may not be repeated in subsequent periods. You should not rely on period-to-period comparisons of our operating results as an indication of future performance. In future years, our operating results may be below our expectations or those of our public market analysts or investors, which would likely cause our share price to decline. 

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We are subject to uncertainties and variability in demand by our customers, which could decrease revenue and adversely affect our operating results, and we have customer contracts with provisions that could cause fluctuations in our revenue.
In our Technology Solutions segment, we sell to our customers on a purchase order basis, rather than pursuant to long-term contracts or contracts with minimum purchase requirements. Consequently, our sales are subject to demand variability by our customers. The level and timing of orders placed by our customers vary for a variety of reasons, including seasonal buying by end-users, the introduction of new hardware and software technologies and general economic conditions. Customers submitting a purchase order may cancel, reduce or delay their orders. If we are unable to anticipate and respond to the demands of our reseller, retail and design and integration solutions customers, we may lose customers because we have an inadequate supply of products, or we may have excess inventory, either of which could harm our business, financial position and operating results.
With regard to our design and integration solutions customers, unique parts are purchased based both on customer purchase orders and forecasted demand. We have limited protection against excess inventory should anticipated demand not materialize.
In our Concentrix segment, we provide global business services to our customers under contracts with provisions that, if triggered, could impact our profitability. For example, many of our contracts may be terminated with a short amount of notice, and to the extent our customers terminate these contracts, we could experience unexpected fluctuations in our revenue and operating results from period to period. Additionally, some contracts have performance-related bonus or penalty provisions, whereby we could receive a bonus if we satisfy certain performance levels or have to pay a penalty for failing to do so. Whether we receive a bonus or are required to pay a penalty is unpredictable, and may cause additional fluctuations in our financial results. In addition, our customers may not guarantee a minimum volume; however, we hire employees based on anticipated average volumes. If we fail to anticipate volumes correctly, our operations and financial results may suffer. The reduction of volume, loss of customers, payment of penalties or inability to terminate any unprofitable contracts could have an adverse impact on our operations and financial results.
In our Technology Solutions segment, we depend on a small number of OEMs to supply the IT and CE products and services that we sell and the loss of, or a material change in, our business relationship with a major OEM supplier could adversely affect our business, financial position and operating results.
Our future success is highly dependent on our relationships with a small number of OEM suppliers. For example, sales of HP products and services comprised approximately 17% , 25% , and 25% of our consolidated revenue for fiscal years 2016 , 2015 , and 2014 , respectively. Our OEM supplier agreements typically are short-term and may be terminated without cause upon short notice. The loss or deterioration of our relationship with HP or any other major OEM supplier, the authorization by OEM suppliers of additional distributors, the sale of products by OEM suppliers directly to our reseller and retail customers and end-users, or our failure to establish relationships with new OEM suppliers or to expand the distribution and supply chain services that we provide OEM suppliers could adversely affect our business, financial position and operating results. In addition, OEM suppliers may face liquidity or solvency issues that in turn could negatively affect our business and operating results.
Our business is also highly dependent on the terms provided by our OEM suppliers. Generally, each OEM supplier has the ability to change the terms and conditions of its distribution agreements, such as reducing the amount of price protection and return rights or reducing the level of purchase discounts, incentive rebates and marketing programs available to us.
From time to time we may conduct business with a supplier without a formal agreement because the agreement has expired or was otherwise terminated. In such case, we are subject to additional risk with respect to products, warranties and returns, and other terms and conditions. If we are unable to pass the impact of these changes through to our reseller and retail customers, our business, financial position and operating results could be adversely affected. 
In our Technology Solutions segment our gross margins are low, which magnifies the impact of variations in gross margin, operating costs and our operating results.
As a result of significant price competition in the IT and CE products and services industry, our gross margins are low, and we expect them to continue to be low in the future. Increased competition arising from industry consolidation and low demand for certain IT and CE products and services may hinder our ability to maintain or improve our gross margins. These low gross margins magnify the impact of variations in revenue, operating costs and our operating results. A portion of our operating expense is relatively fixed, and planned expenditures are based in part on anticipated orders that are forecasted with limited visibility of future demand. As a result, we may not be able to reduce our operating expense to sufficiently mitigate any

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further reductions in gross profit or margin in the future. If we cannot proportionately decrease our cost structure in response to competitive price pressures, our business and operating results could suffer.
We also receive purchase discounts and rebates from OEM suppliers based on various factors, including sales or purchase volume and breadth of customers. A decrease in net sales could negatively affect the level of volume rebates received from our OEM suppliers and thus, our gross margin. Because some rebates from OEM suppliers are based on percentage increases in sales of products, it may become more difficult for us to achieve the percentage growth in sales required for larger discounts due to the current size of our revenue base. A decrease or elimination of purchase discounts and rebates from our OEM suppliers would adversely affect our business and operating results.
We are subject to the risk that our inventory value may decline, and protective terms under our OEM supplier agreements may not adequately cover the decline in value, which in turn may harm our business, financial position and operating results.
The IT and CE products industry is subject to rapid technological change, new and enhanced product specification requirements, and evolving industry standards. These changes may cause inventory on hand to decline substantially in value or to rapidly become obsolete. Most of our OEM suppliers offer limited protection from the loss in value of inventory. For example, we can receive a credit from many OEM suppliers for products held in inventory in the event of a supplier price reduction. In addition, we have a limited right to return a certain percentage of purchases to most OEM suppliers. These policies are often subject to time restrictions and do not protect us in all cases from declines in inventory value. In addition, our OEM suppliers may become unable or unwilling to fulfill their protection obligations to us. The decrease or elimination of price protection, or the inability of our OEM suppliers to fulfill their protection obligations, could lower our gross margins and cause us to record inventory write-downs. If we are unable to manage our inventory with our OEM suppliers with a high degree of precision, we may have insufficient product supplies or we may have excess inventory, resulting in inventory write-downs, either of which could harm our business, financial position and operating results.
We depend on OEM suppliers to maintain an adequate supply of products to fulfill customer orders on a timely basis, and any supply shortages or delays could cause us to be unable to timely fulfill orders, which in turn could harm our business, financial position and operating results.
Our ability to obtain particular products in the required quantities and to fulfill reseller and retail customer orders on a timely basis is critical to our success. In most cases, we have no guaranteed price or delivery agreements with our OEM suppliers. We occasionally experience a supply shortage of certain products as a result of strong demand or problems experienced by our OEM suppliers. If shortages or delays persist, the price of those products may increase, or the products may not be available at all. Such delays could also impact our ability to procure critical components required to complete customer orders. In addition, our OEM suppliers may decide to distribute, or to substantially increase their existing distribution business, through other distributors, their own dealer networks, or directly to resellers, retailers or end-users. Accordingly, if we are not able to secure and maintain an adequate supply of products to fulfill our customer orders on a timely basis, our business, financial position and operating results could be adversely affected.
Our delivery center activities in our Concentrix business are significantly concentrated in India and the Philippines, which may expose us to operational risks.
Operations in our Concentrix segment are based on a global delivery model with client services provided from delivery centers located in several countries with a significant percentage of our workforce located in India and the Philippines. Socio-economic situations which are specific to these countries can severely disrupt our operations and impact our ability to fulfill our contractual obligations to our clients. If these regions experience severe natural calamities or political unrest, our personnel resources may be affected, our IT and communication infrastructure may be at risk and the client processes that we manage may be adversely affected. Changes in governments, laws, regulations and taxation rules may severely impact our ability to do business in these countries, our business practices, our operating costs and our results of operations.
Both our Technology Solutions and Concentrix segments have customer concentration and intense competition which could adversely impact our revenue.
Our business experiences customer concentration from time to time. For example, in 2016, one customer accounted for 12% of our consolidated revenue. While we do not believe that the loss of any single customer would have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, such loss could result in an adverse impact on certain of our businesses. For example, the systems design and integration solutions business of our Technology Solutions segment has significant customer concentration, requires investments in working capital and infrastructure, and has customer contracts that often offer limited or no volume guarantees or protection for end-of-life investments. The loss of a customer or reduction in order volumes in this business could adversely impact our revenue, provision for inventory losses, the absorption of fixed

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overhead costs and our future expansion plans. The system design and integration solutions business operates in a competitive environment. Volumes can fluctuate based on customer demand, delivery quality and the competitive landscape. Our ability to deliver customized solutions on a timely basis is critical to our success. Any delay could impact our competitive position and result in loss of customer orders, which could impact our financial position and operating results.
In our Concentrix segment, we have experienced customer concentration. This customer concentration increases the risk of quarterly fluctuations in our operating results, depending on the seasonal pattern of our top customers’ business. In addition, our top customers could make greater demands on us with regard to pricing and contractual terms in general. The loss of, or significant decrease in demand from, any of our top customers could affect our business, results of operations and financial condition of the segment.
The market for CE products that we distribute is characterized by short product life cycles. Increased competition for limited retailer shelf space, decreased promotional support from resellers or retailers or increased popularity of downloadable or online content and services could adversely impact our revenue.
The market for CE products, such as personal computers and tablets, mobile devices, wearable devices, video game titles and hardware, and audio or visual equipment, is characterized by short product life cycles and frequent introductions of new products. The markets in which we compete frequently introduce new products to meet changing consumer preferences and trends. As a result, competition is intense for resellers’ and retailers’ limited shelf space and promotions. If our vendors’ new products are not introduced in a timely manner or do not achieve significant market acceptance, we may not generate sufficient sales or profitability. Further, if we are unable to successfully compete for resellers’ or retailers’ space and promotional resources, this could negatively impact market acceptance of our products and negatively impact our business and operating results.
Our Concentrix business is subject to dynamic changes in its business model and intense competition, which in turn could cause our operations to suffer.
The customer engagement services industry is highly competitive, highly fragmented and subject to rapid change. We believe that the principal competitive factors in this market are breadth and depth of process and domain expertise, service quality, the ability to attract, train and retain qualified people, compliance rigor, global delivery capabilities, price and marketing and sales capabilities. We compete for business with a variety of companies, including in-house captives of potential clients. If our customers place more focus in this area and internalize these operations, this could also cause a significant reduction in the size of the available market for third party service providers like us. Similarly, if competitors offer their services at lower margins to gain market share, this could cause a significant decrease in the available market for us. In addition, our success may depend on our ability to continue to develop and implement services and solutions that anticipate and respond to rapid and continuing changes in technology and offerings to serve the evolving needs of our clients. Some of these technologies, such as cloud-based services, artificial intelligence and automation, may cause an adverse shift in the way our existing business operations are conducted or decrease the size of the available market. 
If we are unable to hire and retain employees with domain expertise for our Concentrix business, our operations will be disrupted, and such disruption may impact our ability to manage our costs, which in turn could impact our profitability.
The success of our operations and the quality of our services are highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain skilled personnel in all of our international delivery centers. The industry is characterized by high employee attrition rates and we face competition in hiring, retaining and motivating talented and skilled leaders and employees with domain experience.
In addition, our profitability is directly affected by the utilization rate of our personnel resources. If we are unable to achieve optimum utilization of our personnel resources, we may experience erosions in our profit margin. However, if our utilization is too high, it may result in a deterioration in the quality of services provided to our clients and may also result in higher attrition rates. If we are unable to manage our employee attrition rates, adequately motivate our employees or utilize our personnel resources efficiently, our operations will be disrupted, and such disruption may impact our ability to manage our costs, which in turn could impact our profitability.
If we fail to maintain effective internal controls over operations we perform for our clients in our Concentrix business or if our information systems are breached or client data are compromised, client relations may suffer, which in turn may adversely affect our revenue and results of operations. 
Our customer engagement services business involves us representing our clients in certain critical operations of their business processes such as sales, marketing and customer support. If our clients experience disruptions in these operations or are dissatisfied with the quality of service provided, our client relationships may suffer and we may face possible legal action.

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In addition, in management of our clients’ operations, we manage large volumes of customer information and confidential data. We may be liable and our operations may be disrupted if there is a breach of confidentiality of client data, if an employee violates policies and regulations governing the management of personal information, if we lose our client’s data or if the security of our IT systems is compromised.
We may also be liable if we do not maintain adequate internal controls over the processes we manage for our clients or if we fail to comply with the laws and regulations applicable to the operations in which we represent our clients. Our clients may request us to obtain audit reports over our internal controls. If we are unable to complete these audit reports in a timely manner, or if internal control deficiencies are identified in the audit process, our client relationships may suffer.
If we are unable to successfully manage our delivery centers in the Concentrix business, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our Concentrix business, which has extensive international operations, may be adversely impacted if we are unable to manage and communicate with the resources located internationally. Service quality may be placed at risk and our ability to optimize our resources may be compromised if we are unable to manage our resources remotely. Our Concentrix business uses a wide variety of technologies to allow us to manage a large volume of work. These technologies are designed to keep our employees productive. Any failure in technology may have a negative impact on our operations. The success of our services primarily depends on the performance of our employees and resulting customer satisfaction. Any increase in average waiting time or handling time or lack of promptness or technical expertise of our employees will directly impact customer satisfaction. Any adverse customer satisfaction may impact the overall business. If we are unable to successfully manage our delivery centers, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Changes in foreign currency exchange rates and limitations on the convertibility of foreign currencies could adversely affect our business and operating results.
Approximately 27% of our consolidated revenue in fiscal year 2016 , 26% for fiscal year 2015 and 28% for fiscal year 2014 were generated outside the United States. Most of our international revenue, cost of revenue and operating expenses are denominated in foreign currencies. We presently have currency exposure arising from both sales and purchases denominated in foreign currencies. Changes in exchange rates between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar may adversely affect our operating margins. For example, if these foreign currencies appreciate against the U.S. dollar, it will be more expensive in terms of U.S. dollars to purchase inventory or pay expenses with foreign currencies. This could have a negative impact on us if revenue related to these purchases is transacted in U.S. dollars. In addition, currency devaluation can result in our products, which are usually purchased by us in U.S. dollars, to be relatively more expensive to procure than products manufactured locally. We currently conduct only limited hedging activities, which involve the use of currency forward contracts. Hedging foreign currencies can be risky. Certain of these hedge positions are undesignated hedges of balance sheet exposures, such as intercompany loans, and typically have maturities of less than one year.
In our Concentrix segment, our customer engagement services are delivered from several delivery centers located around the world, with significant operations in India and the Philippines. As a result, our revenue may be earned in currencies that are different from the currencies in which we incur corresponding expenses. Fluctuations in the value of currencies, such as the Indian Rupee and the Philippine Peso, against the U.S. Dollar, and inflation in the local economies in which these delivery centers are located, could increase the operating and labor costs in these delivery centers which can result in reduced profitability.
There is also additional risk if the currency is not freely or actively traded. Some currencies, such as the Chinese Renminbi, Indian Rupee and Philippines Peso, are subject to limitations on conversion into other currencies, which can limit our ability to hedge or to otherwise react to rapid foreign currency devaluations. We cannot predict the impact of future exchange rate fluctuations on our business and operating results.
We do not use derivative financial instruments for speculative trading purposes, nor do we hedge our foreign currency exposure in a manner that entirely offsets the effects of changes in foreign exchange rates.
As a general rule, we do not use financial instruments to hedge local currency denominated operating expenses in countries where a natural hedge exists. For example, in many countries, revenue from the local currency services substantially offsets the local currency denominated operating expenses.

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Because we conduct substantial operations in China, risks associated with economic, political and social events in China could negatively affect our business and operating results.
A substantial portion of our IT systems operations, including our IT systems support and software development operations, and a portion of our Concentrix services, are located in China. In addition, we also conduct general and administrative activities from our facilities in China. As of November 30, 2016 , we had approximately 5,700 personnel located in China. Our operations in China are subject to a number of risks relating to China’s economic and political systems, including:
a government controlled foreign exchange rate and limitations on the convertibility of the Chinese Renminbi;
extensive government regulation;
changing governmental policies relating to tax benefits available to foreign-owned businesses;
the telecommunications infrastructure;
a relatively uncertain legal system; and
uncertainties related to continued economic and social reform.
Our IT systems are an important part of our global operations. Any significant interruption in service, whether resulting from any of the above uncertainties, natural disasters or otherwise, could result in delays in our inventory purchasing, errors in order fulfillment, reduced levels of customer service and other disruptions in operations, any of which could cause our business and operating results to suffer.
We may have higher than anticipated tax liabilities.
We conduct business globally and file income tax returns in various tax jurisdictions. Our effective tax rate could be adversely affected by several factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:  
changes in income before taxes in various jurisdictions in which we operate that have differing statutory tax rates;
changing tax laws, regulations, and/or interpretations of such tax laws in multiple jurisdictions;
effect of tax rate on accounting for acquisitions and dispositions;
issues arising from tax audit or examinations and any related interest or penalties; and
uncertainty in obtaining tax holiday extensions or expiration or loss of tax holidays in various jurisdictions.
We report our results of operations based on our determination of the amount of taxes owed in various tax jurisdictions in which we operate. The determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires estimation, judgment and calculations where the ultimate tax determination may not be certain. Our determination of tax liability is always subject to review or examination by tax authorities in various tax jurisdictions. Any adverse outcome of such review or examination could have a negative impact on our operating results and financial condition. The results from various tax examinations and audits may differ from the liabilities recorded in our financial statements and could adversely affect our financial results and cash flows.
We have pursued and intend to continue to pursue strategic acquisitions or investments in new markets and may encounter risks associated with these activities, which could harm our business and operating results.  
We have in the past pursued, and in the future expect to pursue, acquisitions of, or investments in, businesses and assets in new markets, either within or outside the IT and CE products and services industries and the customer engagement services industry, that complement or expand our existing business. Our acquisition strategy involves a number of risks, including:  
difficulty in successfully integrating acquired operations, IT systems, customers, OEM supplier relationships, products, services and businesses with our operations;
risk that the acquired businesses will fail to maintain the quality of services that we have historically provided;
loss of key employees of acquired operations or inability to hire key employees necessary for our expansion;
diversion of our capital and management attention away from other business issues;

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increase in our expenses and working capital requirements;
in the case of acquisitions that we may make outside of the United States, difficulty in operating in foreign countries and over significant geographical distances;
other financial risks, such as potential liabilities of the businesses we acquire; and
our due diligence process may fail to identify significant issues with the acquired company’s product and service quality, financial disclosures, accounting practices or internal control deficiencies.
We may incur additional costs and certain redundant expenses in connection with our acquisitions and investments, which may have an adverse impact on our operating margins. Future acquisitions may result in dilutive issuances of equity securities, the incurrence of additional debt, large write-offs, a decrease in future profitability, or future losses. The incurrence of debt in connection with any future acquisitions could restrict our ability to obtain working capital or other financing necessary to operate our business. Our recent and future acquisitions or investments may not be successful, and if we fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions or investments, our business and operating results could be harmed.
Our goodwill and identifiable intangible assets could become impaired, which could have a material non-cash adverse effect on our results of operations.
We recorded substantial goodwill and amortizable intangible assets as a result of our previous acquisitions. We review our goodwill and intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. We assess whether there has been an impairment in the value of goodwill at least annually. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of our goodwill or intangible assets may not be recoverable include declines in stock price, market capitalization or cash flows and slower growth rates in our industry. We could be required to record a significant charge to earnings in our financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill or intangible assets were determined, negatively impacting our results of operations.
Because of the capital-intensive nature of our Technology Solutions business, we need continued access to capital, which if not available to us or if not available on favorable terms, could harm our ability to operate or expand our business.  
Our Technology Solutions business requires significant levels of capital to finance accounts receivable and product inventory that is not financed by trade creditors. If cash from available sources is insufficient, proceeds from our accounts receivable securitization and revolving credit programs are limited or cash is used for unanticipated needs, we may require additional capital sooner than anticipated.
In the event we are required, or elect, to raise additional funds, we may be unable to do so on favorable terms, or at all, and may incur expenses in raising the additional funds. Our current and future indebtedness could adversely affect our operating results and severely limit our ability to plan for, or react to, changes in our business or industry. We could also be limited by financial and other restrictive covenants in securitization or credit arrangements, including limitations on our borrowing of additional funds and issuing dividends. Furthermore, the cost of securitization or debt financing could significantly increase in the future, making it cost prohibitive to securitize our accounts receivable or borrow, which could force us to issue new equity securities. If we issue new equity securities, existing stockholders may experience dilution, or the new equity securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of existing holders of common stock. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to take advantage of future opportunities or respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated requirements. Any inability to raise additional capital when required could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.
The terms of our debt arrangements impose significant restrictions on our ability to operate which in turn could negatively affect our ability to respond to business and market conditions and therefore could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.
As of November 30, 2016 , we had $967.0 million in outstanding short and long-term borrowings under term loans, lines of credit, accounts receivable securitization programs and capital leases, excluding trade payables. The terms of one or more of the agreements under which this indebtedness was incurred may limit or restrict, among other things, our ability to:
incur additional indebtedness;
make investments;
pay dividends or make certain other restricted payments;

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repurchase common stock;
consummate certain asset sales or acquisitions;
enter into certain transactions with affiliates; and
merge, consolidate or sell, assign, transfer, lease, convey or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets.
We are also required to maintain specified financial ratios and satisfy certain financial condition tests under certain of our debt facilities. Our inability to meet these ratios and tests could result in the acceleration of the repayment of the related debt, termination of the applicable facility, an increase in our effective cost of funds or the cross-default of other credit and securitization arrangements. As a result, our ability to operate may be restricted and our ability to respond to business and market conditions may be limited, which could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations, which could adversely affect our business.
Our ability to make scheduled debt payments or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We cannot be certain that we will maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal and interest on our indebtedness.  
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets or operations, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We cannot be certain that we would be able to take any of these actions, that these actions would be successful and permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations or that these actions would be permitted under the terms of our existing or future debt agreements. In the absence of such operating results and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. Some of our credit facilities restrict our ability to dispose assets and use the proceeds from such disposition. As such, we may not be able to consummate those dispositions or use any resulting proceeds and, in addition, such proceeds may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due.
If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we will be in default and, as a result: 
our lenders could declare all outstanding principal and interest to be due and payable;
the lenders under our credit agreements could terminate their commitments to loan us money and, in the case of our secured credit agreements, foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings;
we could be forced to raise additional capital through the issuance of additional, potentially dilutive securities; and
we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation, which is likely to result in delays in the payment of our indebtedness and in the exercise of enforcement remedies related to our indebtedness.
If the interest rates on our borrowings increase, our access to capital and net income could be adversely affected.
Our borrowings and securitization arrangements are variable-rate obligations and expose us to interest rate risks. If interest rates increase, debt service obligations and our interest expense will increase even though the amount borrowed remains the same. Our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease.
An increase in interest rates may increase our future borrowing costs and restrict our access to capital. Additionally, current market conditions, the recovering global economy, and overall credit conditions could limit our availability of capital, which could cause increases in interest margin spreads over underlying indices, effectively increasing the cost of our borrowing. While some of our credit facilities have contractually negotiated spreads, any changes to these spreads in connection with renegotiations of our credit facilities could adversely affect our results of operations.
In May 2015, we entered into interest rate swaps with financial institutions to effectively convert a portion of our floating rate debt to a fixed interest rate to manage our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates. In the event of the nonperformance by the counterparties, we are exposed to credit losses.

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A portion of our revenue is financed by floor plan financing companies and any termination or reduction in these financing arrangements could increase our financing costs and harm our business and operating results.
A portion of our product distribution revenue is financed by floor plan financing companies. Floor plan financing companies are engaged by our customers to finance, or floor, the purchase of products from us. In exchange for a fee, we transfer the risk of loss on the sale of our products to the floor plan companies. We currently receive payment from these financing companies within approximately 15 to 30 days from the date of the sale, which allows our business to operate at much lower relative working capital levels than if such programs were not available. If these floor plan arrangements are terminated or substantially reduced, the need for more working capital and the increased financing cost could harm our business and operating results.
We have significant credit exposure to our customers, and negative trends in their businesses could cause us significant credit loss and negatively impact our cash flow and liquidity position.
We extend credit to our customers for a significant portion of our sales to them and they have a period of time, generally 30 days after the date of invoice, to make payment. However, in certain cases, for some of our larger customers, we offer longer terms of payment. As a result, we are subject to the risk that our customers will not pay on time or at all. Our credit exposure risk may increase due to financial difficulties or liquidity or solvency issues experienced by our customers, resulting in their inability to repay us. The liquidity or solvency issues may increase as a result of an economic downturn or a decrease in IT or CE spending by end-users. If we are unable to collect payments in a timely manner from our customers due to changes in financial or economic conditions, or for other reasons, and we are unable to collect under our credit insurance policies, we may write-off the amount due from the customers. These write-offs may result in credit insurance being more expensive and on terms that are less favorable to us and may negatively impact our ability to utilize accounts receivable-based financing. In addition, the failure of customers to pay within a specified time period after the date of an invoice could result in defaults under our accounts receivable securitization program. These circumstances could negatively impact our cash flow and liquidity position, or result in the cross-default to our other indebtedness and acceleration of the repayment of our indebtedness. Further, we are exposed to higher collection risk as we continue to expand internationally, where the payment cycles are generally longer and the credit rating process may not be as robust as in the United States, and where our access to accounts receivable financing is more limited.
We are dependent on a variety of IT and telecommunications systems and the Internet, and any failure of these systems could adversely impact our business and operating results.  
We depend on IT and telecommunications systems and the Internet for our operations. These systems support a variety of functions including inventory management, order processing, shipping, shipment tracking, billing, and our Concentrix business.  
Failures or significant downtime of our IT or telecommunications systems could prevent us from taking customer orders, printing product pick-lists, shipping products, billing customers and handling call volume. Frequent or prolonged interruption in our ability to provide service in our Concentrix business would adversely affect our client relationships and damage our reputation. Sales also may be affected if our reseller and retail customers are unable to access our pricing and product availability information. We also rely on the Internet, and in particular EDI and XML, for a large portion of our orders and information exchanges with our OEM suppliers and reseller and retail customers. The Internet and individual websites have experienced a number of disruptions and slowdowns, some of which were caused by organized attacks. In addition, some websites have experienced security breakdowns. If we were to experience a security breakdown, disruption or breach that compromised sensitive information, it could harm our relationship with our OEM suppliers and reseller and retail customers. Disruption of our website or the Internet in general could impair our order processing or more generally prevent our OEM suppliers and reseller and retail customers from accessing information. Our Concentrix business is dependent upon telephone and data services provided by third party telecommunications service vendors and our IT and telecommunications systems. Any significant increase in our IT and telecommunications costs or temporary or permanent loss of our IT or telecommunications systems could harm our relationships with our customers. The occurrence of any of these events could have an adverse effect on our operations and financial results.
We rely on independent shipping companies for delivery of products, and price increases or service interruptions from these carriers could adversely affect our business and operating results.  
We rely almost entirely on arrangements with independent shipping companies, such as FedEx and UPS, for the delivery of our products from OEM suppliers and delivery of products to reseller and retail customers. Freight and shipping charges can have a significant impact on our gross margin. As a result, an increase in freight surcharges due to rising fuel cost or general price increases will have an immediate adverse effect on our margins, unless we are able to pass the increased charges to our reseller and retail customers or renegotiate terms with our OEM suppliers. In addition, in the past, carriers have experienced work stoppages due to labor negotiations with management. An increase in freight or shipping charges, the termination of our

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arrangements with one or more of these independent shipping companies, the failure or inability of one or more of these independent shipping companies to deliver products, or the unavailability of their shipping services, even temporarily, could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.
Because of the experience of our key personnel in the IT, CE and the customer engagement services industries and their technological and industry expertise, if we were to lose any of our key personnel, it could inhibit our ability to operate and grow our business successfully.  
We are dependent in large part on our ability to retain the services of our key senior executives and other technological and industry experts and personnel. Except for Kevin Murai, our President and Chief Executive Officer, our employees and executives generally do not have employment agreements. Furthermore, we do not carry “key person” insurance coverage for any of our key executives. We compete for qualified senior management and technical personnel. The loss of, or inability to hire, key executives or qualified employees could inhibit our ability to operate and grow our business successfully.
We may experience theft of product from our warehouses, water damage to our properties and other casualty events which could harm our operating results.
From time to time, we have experienced incidents of theft at various facilities, water damages to our properties and other casualty events. These types of incidents may make it more difficult or expensive for us to obtain insurance coverage in the future. Also, the same or similar incidents may occur in the future for which we may not have sufficient insurance coverage or policy limits to be fully compensated for the loss, which may have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.
We may become involved in intellectual property or other disputes that could cause us to incur substantial costs, divert the efforts of our management, and require us to pay substantial damages or require us to obtain a license, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.
From time to time, we receive notifications alleging infringements of intellectual property rights allegedly held by others relating to our business or the products we sell or integrate for our OEM suppliers and others. Litigation with respect to patents or other intellectual property matters could result in substantial costs and diversion of management and other resources and could have an adverse effect on our business. Although we generally have various levels of indemnification protection from our OEM suppliers and design and integration solutions customers, in many cases any indemnification to which we may be entitled is subject to maximum limits or other restrictions.
In addition, we have developed proprietary IT systems, mobile applications, and cloud-based technology and acquired technologies that play an important role in our business. If any infringement claim is successful against us and if indemnification is not available or sufficient, we may be required to pay substantial damages or we may need to seek and obtain a license of the other party’s intellectual property rights. We may be unable to obtain such a license on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.
We are from time to time involved in other litigation in the ordinary course of business. We may not be successful in defending these or other claims. Regardless of the outcome, litigation could result in substantial expense and could divert the efforts of our management.  
We have significant operations concentrated in North and South America, Asia-Pacific and Europe and any disruption in the operations of our facilities could harm our business and operating results.
Our worldwide operations could be subject to natural disasters, adverse weather conditions and other business disruptions, which could seriously harm our revenue and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. We have significant operations in our facilities located in North America, Asia-Pacific and Europe. As a result, any prolonged disruption in the operations of our facilities, whether due to technical difficulties, power failures, break-ins, destruction or damage to the facilities as a result of a natural disaster, fire or any other reason, could harm our operating results. If there are related disruptions in local or international supply chains, we may experience supply shortages or delays in receiving products from our OEM suppliers or experience other delays in shipping to our customers. If we are unable to fulfill customer requirements in a timely manner, this could harm our operating results. For example, our Philippines operation is at greater risk due to adverse weather conditions, such as typhoons, mudslides and floods. We currently have a disaster recovery plan and business interruption insurance; however, they may not be sufficient to compensate for losses that may occur.  

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Global health and economic, political and social conditions may harm our ability to do business, increase our costs and negatively affect our stock price.
Worldwide economic conditions remain uncertain due to instability in the global credit market, the current economic challenges in China, falling demand for oil and other commodities, adverse consequences concerning the United Kingdom’s referendum to vote for exit from the European Union, market volatility as a result of political leadership in certain countries such as China, the Philippines and the United States and other disruptions to global and regional economies and markets. External factors, such as potential terrorist attacks, acts of war, geopolitical and social turmoil or epidemics and other similar outbreaks in many parts of the world, could prevent or hinder our ability to do business, increase our costs and negatively affect our stock price. More generally, these geopolitical, social and economic conditions could result in increased volatility in the United States and worldwide financial markets and economy. For example, increased instability may enhance volatility in currency exchange rates, cause our customers or potential customers to delay or reduce spending on our products or services, and limit our suppliers’ access to credit. It could also adversely impact our ability to obtain adequate insurance at reasonable rates and may require us to incur increased costs for security measures for our domestic and international operations. We are predominantly uninsured for losses and interruptions caused by terrorism, acts of war and similar events. These uncertainties make it difficult for us and our suppliers and customers to accurately plan future business activities.
Part of our business is conducted outside of the United States, exposing us to additional risks that may not exist in the United States, which in turn could cause our business and operating results to suffer.  
We have significant international operations and presence which subjects us to risks, including: 
political or economic instability;
extensive governmental regulation;
changes in import/export duties;
fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rates;
trade restrictions;
compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, U.K. bribery laws and similar laws;
difficulties and costs of staffing and managing operations in certain foreign countries;
work stoppages or other changes in labor conditions;
difficulties in collecting accounts receivable on a timely basis or at all;
taxes; and
seasonal reductions in business activity in some parts of the world.
We may continue to expand internationally to respond to competitive pressure and customer and market requirements. Establishing operations in any foreign country or region presents risks such as those described above as well as risks specific to the particular country or region. In addition, until a payment history is established over time with customers in a new geography or region, the likelihood of collecting accounts receivable generated by such operations could be less than our expectations. As a result, there is a greater risk that reserves set with respect to the collection of such accounts receivable may be inadequate. Furthermore, if our international expansion efforts in any foreign country are unsuccessful, we may decide to cease operations, which would likely cause us to incur additional expense and loss. 
In addition, changes in policies or laws of the United States or foreign governments resulting in, among other things, higher taxation, currency conversion limitations, restrictions on fund transfers or the expropriation of private enterprises, could reduce the anticipated benefits of our international expansion. Any actions by countries in which we conduct business to reverse policies that encourage foreign trade or investment could adversely affect our business. If we fail to realize the anticipated growth of our future international operations, our business and operating results could suffer.  

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Risks Related to Our Relationship with MiTAC Holdings Corporation  
The concentration of ownership of our common stock among our executive officers, directors and principal stockholders could allow them to influence all matters requiring stockholder approval and could delay or prevent a change in control of SYNNEX.  
As of November 30, 2016 , our executive officers, directors and principal stockholders owned approximately 27% of our outstanding common stock. In particular, MiTAC Holdings Corporation (“MiTAC Holdings”) and its affiliates owned approximately 24% of our common stock. MiTAC Holdings is a publicly-traded company on the Taiwan Stock Exchange. As a result, these stockholders have the potential ability to influence or control matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers and acquisitions, or exert influence on actions of the Board of Directors. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change of control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our common stock.
There could be potential conflicts of interest between us and MiTAC Holdings and its affiliates, which could affect our business and operating results.  
MiTAC Holdings’ and its affiliates’ continuing beneficial ownership of our common stock could create conflicts of interest with respect to a variety of matters, such as potential acquisitions, competition, issuance or disposition of securities, election of directors, payment of dividends and other business matters. For example, we currently purchase inventories from MiTAC Holdings. Similar risks could exist as a result of Matthew Miau’s positions as our Chairman Emeritus, a member of our Board of Directors, the Chairman of MiTAC Holdings and as a director or officer of MiTAC Holdings’ affiliates. For fiscal year 2016 , Mr. Miau received the same compensation as our independent directors. For fiscal year 2017, Mr. Miau will receive the same compensation as our independent directors. Mr. Miau’s compensation as one of our directors is based upon the approval of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, which is solely composed of independent members of the Board of Directors. We also have adopted a policy requiring material transactions in which any of our directors has a potential conflict of interest to be approved by our Audit Committee, which is also composed of independent members of the Board of Directors. 
Synnex Technology International Corp., or Synnex Technology International, a publicly-traded company based in Taiwan and affiliated with MiTAC Holdings, currently provides distribution and fulfillment services to various markets in Asia and Australia, and is also a potential competitor of ours. As of November 30, 2016 , MiTAC Incorporated, a privately-held company based in Taiwan and a separate entity from MiTAC Holdings, directly and indirectly owned approximately 13.6% of Synnex Technology International and approximately 7.8% of MiTAC Holdings. As of November 30, 2016 , MiTAC Holdings directly and indirectly owned 0.2% of Synnex Technology International and Synnex Technology International directly and indirectly owned approximately 0.0% of MiTAC Holdings. In addition, MiTAC Holdings directly and indirectly owned approximately 8.7% of MiTAC Incorporated and Synnex Technology International directly and indirectly owned approximately 18.4% of MiTAC Incorporated as of November 30, 2016 . Synnex Technology International indirectly through its ownership of Peer Developments Limited owned approximately 10.6% of our outstanding common stock as of November 30, 2016 . Neither MiTAC Holdings, nor Synnex Technology International is restricted from competing with us. In the future, we may increasingly compete with Synnex Technology International, particularly if our business in Asia expands or Synnex Technology International expands its business into geographies or customers we serve. Although Synnex Technology International is a separate entity from us, it is possible that there will be confusion as a result of the similarity of our names. Moreover, we cannot limit or control the use of the Synnex name by Synnex Technology International in certain geographies and our use of the Synnex name may be restricted as a result of registration of the name by Synnex Technology International or the prior use in jurisdictions where it currently operates. 
Risks Related to Our Industry  
Volatility in the IT and CE industries could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.  
We have in the past, experienced decreases in demand and we anticipate that the industries we operate in will be subject to a high degree of cyclicality in the future. Softening demand for our products and services caused by an ongoing economic downturn and over-capacity may impact our revenue, as well the salability of inventory and collection of reseller and retail customer accounts receivable. In addition, if we are not able to adequately adapt to the emergence of new technology or customer demand, such as cloud-based IT infrastructure and software-as-a-service, our future operating results could be adversely affected.

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We are subject to intense competition in the Technology Solutions and Concentrix businesses, both in the United States and internationally, and if we fail to compete successfully, we will be unable to gain or retain market share.
We operate in a highly competitive environment, both in the United States and internationally. This competition is based primarily on product and service availability, credit availability, price, speed of delivery, ability to tailor specific solutions to customer needs, quality and depth of product and service lines, pre-sales and post-sales technical support, flexibility and timely response to design changes, and technological capabilities, service and support. We compete with a variety of regional, national and international IT and CE product and service providers and contract manufacturers and assemblers and providers of customer engagement services. In some instances, we also compete with our own customers, our own OEM suppliers and MiTAC Holdings and its affiliates.  
Our primary competitors are substantially larger and have greater financial, operating, manufacturing and marketing resources than us. Some of our competitors may have broader geographic breadth and range of services than us and may have more developed relationships with their existing customers. We may lose market share in the United States or in international markets, or may be forced in the future to reduce our prices in response to the actions of our competitors and thereby experience a reduction in our gross margins.  
In addition, in our Concentrix business, we also face competition from our customers. For example, some of our customers may have internal capabilities and resources to provide their own customer contact centers. Furthermore, pricing pressures and quality of services could impact our business adversely. Our ability to provide a high quality of service is dependent on our ability to retain and properly train our employees and to continue investing in our infrastructure, including IT and telecommunications systems.  
We may initiate other business activities, including the broadening of our supply chain capabilities, and may face competition from companies with more experience in those new areas. In addition, as we enter new areas of business, we may also encounter increased competition from current competitors or from new competitors, including some that may once have been our OEM suppliers or reseller and retail customers. Increased competition and negative reaction from our OEM suppliers or reseller and retail customers resulting from our expansion into new business areas could harm our business and operating results.  
Our business may be adversely affected by some OEM suppliers’ strategies to consolidate business or increase their direct sales, which in turn could cause our business and operating results to suffer.
A determination by any of our primary OEMs to consolidate their business with other distributors or integration service providers could negatively affect our business and operating results. Consolidation of OEM suppliers has resulted in fewer sources for some of the products and services that we distribute. This consolidation has also resulted in larger OEM suppliers that have significant operating and financial resources. Other suppliers may reduce or eliminate promotional activities to reduce their expenses, which could, in turn, result in declined demand from our reseller or retailer customers and end-users.
Some OEM suppliers, including some of the leading OEM suppliers that we service, have been selling products and services directly to reseller and retail customers and end-users, thereby limiting our business opportunities. If large OEM suppliers increasingly sell directly to end-users or our resellers and retailers, rather than use us as the distributor of their products and services, our business and operating results will suffer.
The IT and CE industries are subject to rapidly changing technologies and process developments, and we may not be able to adequately adjust our business to these changes, which in turn would harm our business and operating results.
Dynamic changes in the IT and CE industries, including the consolidation of OEM suppliers and reductions in the number of authorized distributors used by OEM suppliers, have resulted in new and increased responsibilities for management personnel and have placed, and continue to place, a significant strain upon our management, operating and financial systems and other resources. We may be unable to successfully respond to and manage our business in light of industry developments and trends. As end users migrate to cloud-based IT infrastructure and software-as-a-service, sales of hardware products may be reduced, thereby negatively impacting our operating results. Also crucial to our success in managing our operations is our ability to achieve additional economies of scale. Our failure to achieve these additional economies of scale or to respond to changes in the IT and CE industries could adversely affect our business and operating results.

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If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our ability to report our financial results on a timely and accurate basis may be adversely affected, which in turn could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires our management to report on, and our independent registered public accounting firm to attest to, the effectiveness of our internal control structure and procedures for financial reporting. We completed an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for fiscal year 2016 , and we have an ongoing program to perform the system and process evaluation and testing necessary to continue to comply with these requirements. However, internal control over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including human error, the possibility that controls could be circumvented or become inadequate because of changed conditions, and fraud. Because of the inherent limitations, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and may not always be prevented or timely detected. We expect to continue to incur significant expense and to devote management resources to Section 404 compliance. In the event that one of our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or independent registered public accounting firm determines that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective as defined under Section 404, investor perceptions and our reputation may be adversely affected and the market price of our stock could decline.
Changes to financial accounting standards may affect our results of operations and cause us to change our business practices.  
We prepare our financial statements to conform to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. These accounting principles are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the SEC and various bodies formed to interpret and create appropriate accounting policies. A change in those policies can have a significant effect on our reported results and may affect our reporting of transactions completed before a change is announced. Changes to those rules or the questioning of current practices may adversely affect our reported financial results or the way we conduct our business.
For example, in May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued a comprehensive new revenue recognition standard for contracts with customers that will supersede most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. This guidance will be applicable to us at the beginning of our first quarter of fiscal year 2019.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
  None.  
Item 2.     Properties  
Our principal executive offices are located in Fremont, California, and are owned by us. We operate distribution, integration, contact center and administrative facilities in different countries. 
Our Technology Solutions segment occupies approximately 40 facilities covering approximately 4.4  million square feet and includes warehouse, logistics and administrative facilities. We own approximately 1.3  million square feet of property and lease the remainder. 
Our Concentrix segment occupies over 120 facilities comprising service and delivery centers and administrative facilities covering approximately 6.6 million square feet. We own approximately three hundred eighty-three  thousand square feet and lease the remainder. 
We have sublet unused portions of some of our facilities. We believe our facilities are well maintained and adequate for current and near future operating needs.
Item 3.     Legal Proceedings  
We are from time to time involved in legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business. We do not believe that these proceedings will have a material adverse effect on the results of our operations, our financial position or the cash flows of our business.
In addition, we have been involved in various bankruptcy preference actions where we were a supplier to the companies now in bankruptcy. These preference actions are filed by the bankruptcy trustee on behalf of the bankrupt estate and generally seek to have payments made by the debtor within 90 days prior to the bankruptcy returned to the bankruptcy estate for allocation among all of the bankruptcy estate’s creditors. We are not currently involved in any material preference proceedings.

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Item 4.     Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
Executive Officers of the Registrant  
The following table sets forth information regarding our executive officers as of November 30, 2016
Name
 
Age
 
Position
 
Kevin Murai
 
53

 
President, Chief Executive Officer and a Director
Dennis Polk
 
50

 
Chief Operating Officer and a Director
Peter Larocque
 
55

 
President, North American Technology Solutions
Marshall Witt
 
51

 
Chief Financial Officer
Christopher Caldwell
 
44

 
Executive Vice President; President, Concentrix Corporation
Simon Leung
 
51

 
Senior Vice President; General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Kevin Murai is our President and Chief Executive Officer and a Director. He joined us in March 2008 and served as Co-Chief Executive Officer until December 2008. Prior to SYNNEX, Mr. Murai was employed for nineteen years at Ingram Micro, Inc., where he served in several executive management positions, including President and Chief Operating Officer and also on the Ingram Micro, Inc. Board of Directors. He holds a Bachelor of Applied Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. 
Dennis Polk is our Chief Operating Officer and has served in this capacity since July 2006. Mr. Polk is also a Director and has served in this capacity since February 2012. He previously served as Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President of Corporate Finance since joining us in February 2002. Mr. Polk received a Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting from Santa Clara University.
Peter Larocque is President, North American Technology Solutions and has served in this capacity since November 2013, having previously served as President of U.S. Distribution since July 2006, Executive Vice President of Distribution since June 2001, and Senior Vice President of Sales and Marketing from September 1997 until June 2001. Mr. Larocque is responsible for SYNNEX’ North American Technology Solutions business. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Economics from the University of Western Ontario, Canada.
Marshall Witt is our Chief Financial Officer and has served in this capacity since April 2013. Prior to joining SYNNEX, Mr. Witt was Senior Vice President of Finance and Controller with FedEx Freight. During his fifteen year tenure with FedEx Corporation, Mr. Witt held progressive financial and operational roles. Prior to FedEx Corporation, he held accounting and finance leadership positions including five years with KPMG LLP as an audit manager for banking and transportation clients. Mr. Witt holds a Bachelor of Business Administration in Finance from Pacific Lutheran University and a Masters in Accounting from Seattle University and is a Certified Public Accountant. 
Christopher Caldwell is Executive Vice President and President of Concentrix Corporation and has served in this capacity since February 2014. He previously served as President of Concentrix Corporation from June 2012 to February 2014, Senior Vice President and General Manager of Concentrix Corporation from March 2007 to June 2012, and Senior Vice President, Global Business Development from March 2007 to June 2012. Mr. Caldwell joined SYNNEX in 2004 as Vice President, Emerging Business through the acquisition of EMJ Data Systems Ltd.
  Simon Leung is our Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary and has served in this capacity since May 2001. Mr. Leung joined SYNNEX in November 2000 as Corporate Counsel. Prior to SYNNEX, Mr. Leung was an attorney at the law firm of Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker LLP. Mr. Leung received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California, Davis in International Relations and his Juris Doctor degree from the University of Minnesota Law School.

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PART II
Item 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock, par value $0.001, is traded on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “SNX.” The following table sets forth the range of high and low sales prices for our common stock for each of the periods listed, as reported by the NYSE.
   
Price Range of
Common Stock
   
Low
 
High
Fiscal Year 2016
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
75.87

 
$
96.59

Second Quarter
$
77.54

 
$
102.83

Third Quarter
$
89.09

 
$
108.03

Fourth Quarter
$
100.06

 
$
118.80

 
 
 
 
Fiscal Year 2015
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
67.65

 
$
80.24

Second Quarter
$
70.14

 
$
83.98

Third Quarter
$
71.00

 
$
85.25

Fourth Quarter
$
76.56

 
$
96.92

 
As of January 20, 2017 , our common stock was held by 635 stockholders of record. Because many of the shares of our common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of beneficial owners represented by these stockholders of record.
Stock Price Performance Graph  
The stock price performance graph below, which assumes a $100 investment on November 30, 2011 , compares our cumulative total stockholder return, the NYSE Composite Index, S&P Midcap 400 Index, Computer & Peripheral Equipment index and a peer group of our Concentrix segment for the period beginning November 30, 2011 through November 30, 2016 . The Computer & Peripheral Equipment index is based on the Standard Industrial Classification Code 5045—Wholesale Computer and Computer Peripheral Equipment and Software. The companies selected to form the Concentrix peer group index include Accenture plc, Convergys Corporation, Genpact Limited, Teleperformance S.A. and TeleTech Holdings Inc. The closing price per share of our common stock was $116.91 on November 30, 2016 . The comparisons in the table are required by the SEC and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock.

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COMPARISONOF5YEARCUMULATIVET.JPG
   
Fiscal Years Ended
   
11/30/2011
 
11/30/2012
 
11/30/2013
 
11/30/2014
 
11/30/2015
 
11/30/2016
SYNNEX Corporation
$
100.00

 
$
112.50

 
$
225.42

 
$
243.92

 
$
324.23

 
$
406.78

NYSE Composite Index
$
100.00

 
$
113.56

 
$
143.74

 
$
158.56

 
$
154.54

 
$
165.47

S&P Midcap 400 Index
$
100.00

 
$
114.93

 
$
152.08

 
$
170.69

 
$
175.67

 
$
198.91

Computers & Peripheral Equipment
$
100.00

 
$
94.44

 
$
140.10

 
$
157.21

 
$
180.18

 
$
218.58

Concentrix Peer Group
$
100.00

 
$
120.61

 
$
144.29

 
$
162.55

 
$
206.05

 
$
230.72

  Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans  
Information regarding the Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans can be found under Item 12 of this Report.
Dividends  
On September 29, 2014, we announced the initiation of a quarterly cash dividend. Since then, dividends have been declared in January, March, June and September and paid at the end of January, April, July and October. Dividends declared per share by fiscal quarter in 2016 and 2015 were as follows:
 
 
Fiscal Years Ended
 
 
2016
 
2015
First Quarter
 
$
0.20

 
$
0.13

Second Quarter
 
$
0.20

 
$
0.13

Third Quarter
 
$
0.20

 
$
0.13

Fourth Quarter
 
$
0.25

 
$
0.20

On January 5, 2017, we announced a cash dividend of $0.25 per share to stockholders of record as of January 13, 2017, payable on January 27, 2017. We review our dividend strategy on an annual basis in the fourth quarter with our board of directors. Dividends are subject to continued capital availability, compliance with the covenants and conditions in some of our credit facilities and the declaration by our Board of Directors in the best interest of our stockholders.

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Purchases of Equity Securities
In June 2011, our Board of Directors authorized a three-year $65 million share repurchase program. We purchased 361,451 shares at a total cost of $11.3 million in the open market before the program expired in June 2014. Those shares are held in treasury for general corporate purposes.
In June 2014, our Board of Directors authorized a three-year $100 million share repurchase program pursuant to which we may repurchase our outstanding common stock from time to time in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions. As of November 30, 2016 , we had purchased 207,498 shares at a total cost of $15.7 million. The share purchases were made on the open market and the shares repurchased by us are held in treasury for general corporate purposes. There were no repurchases of equity securities in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2016 .
Item 6.     Selected Financial Data  
The following selected consolidated financial data are qualified by reference to, and should be read together with, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Item 7 of this Report and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in Item 8 of this Report. The selected Consolidated Statements of Operations and other data presented below for fiscal years 2016 , 2015 and 2014 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of November 30, 2016 and 2015 have been derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report. The Consolidated Statements of Operations and other data for fiscal years 2013 and 2012 and the Consolidated Balance Sheet data as of November 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012 have been derived from our Consolidated Financial Statements that are not included in this Report. The Consolidated Statements of Operations data include the operating results from our acquisitions from the closing date of each acquisition. Historical operating results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period. Please see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Notes 2 and 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for a discussion of factors, such as business combinations, that affect the comparability of the following selected consolidated financial data. 
 
Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Statements of Operations Data: (in thousands, except per share amounts)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
14,061,837

 
$
13,338,397

 
$
13,839,590

 
$
10,845,164

 
$
10,285,507

Gross profit
1,282,965

 
1,191,791

 
1,099,004

 
654,970

 
656,737

Operating income
379,596

 
354,552

 
308,507

 
240,828

 
255,012

Net income
235,005

 
208,607

 
180,150

 
152,322

 
152,503

Net income attributable to SYNNEX Corporation
234,946

 
208,525

 
180,034

 
152,237

 
151,376

Earnings per share attributable to SYNNEX Corporation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic:
$
5.91

 
$
5.28

 
$
4.61

 
$
4.06

 
$
4.08

Diluted:
$
5.88

 
$
5.24

 
$
4.57

 
$
3.02

 
$
3.96

Cash dividends declared per share
$
0.85

 
$
0.58

 
$
0.13

 
$

 
$

For fiscal year ended November 30, 2013, the numerator for the computation of “Earnings per share attributable to SYNNEX Corporation - Diluted” was adjusted for dilutive changes in the estimated value of the conversion premium of our convertible debt from April 2013 through the final settlement date in August 2013. The adjustment to the numerator had the effect of reducing our “Earnings per share attributable to SYNNEX Corporation - Diluted” by $0.97 for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2013.
 
As of November 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Balance Sheet Data: (in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
380,717

 
$
336,072

 
$
180,143

 
$
151,622

 
$
163,699

Working capital
1,567,281

 
1,731,624

 
1,178,260

 
1,142,355

 
1,085,754

Total assets
5,223,263

 
4,444,147

 
4,713,042

 
3,325,889

 
2,963,262

Borrowings, current
363,737

 
92,093

 
716,257

 
252,523

 
194,134

Long-term borrowings
603,229

 
638,798

 
264,246

 
65,405

 
81,152

Total equity
1,975,798

 
1,799,897

 
1,653,985

 
1,411,641

 
1,319,355


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Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
   
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Other Data: (in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
$
121,293

 
$
103,510

 
$
91,699

 
$
24,462

 
$
24,630

Item 7.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations  
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with Selected Consolidated Financial Data and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included elsewhere in this Report. 
When used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Report”), the words “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “allows,” “can,” “may,” “designed,” “will,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These are statements that relate to future periods and include statements about market trends, our business model and our services, our market strategy, including expansion of our product lines, our infrastructure, our investment in information technology, or IT, systems, our employee hiring, impact of MiTAC Holdings Corporation, or MiTAC Holdings, ownership interest in us, our revenue and operating results, our gross margins, our inventory, competition with Synnex Technology International Corp., our future needs for additional financing, the likely sources for such funding and the impact of such funding, concentration of customers, our international operations, foreign currency exchange rates, expansion of our operations and related effects, including our Concentrix business, our strategic acquisitions and divestitures of businesses and assets, including the impact of the Minacs acquisition on our business and on our goodwill, adequacy of our cash resources to meet our capital needs, cash held by our foreign subsidiaries, adequacy of our disclosure controls and procedures, pricing pressures, competition, impact of economic and industry trends, impact of our accounting policies and recently issued accounting pronouncements, impact of inventory repurchase obligations and commitments and contingencies, our tax rates, our share repurchase and dividend program, and statements regarding our securitization programs and revolving credit lines and our investments in working capital, personnel, facilities and operations. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those risks discussed herein, as well as the seasonality of the buying patterns of our customers, concentration of sales to large customers, dependence upon and trends in capital spending budgets in the IT, and consumer electronics, or CE, industries, fluctuations in general economic conditions and risks set forth under Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.” These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof. We expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.  
For an understanding of SYNNEX and the significant factors that influenced the Company’s performance during the past three fiscal years, the following discussion should be read in conjunction with the description of the business appearing in Item 1 of this Report and the consolidated financial statements, including the related notes and schedule, and other information appearing in Item 8 of this Report.
Revenue and Cost of Revenue  
We derive our Technology Solutions revenue primarily through the distribution of peripherals, IT systems, system components, software, networking/communications/security equipment and CE products, and the delivery of servers and networking solutions for our design and integration solutions customers’ data centers. Shipping terms are typically F.O.B. shipping point. In our Concentrix segment, we provide high value business services and solutions for the customer relationship life cycle. Our customer contracts typically consist of a master services agreement or statement of work, which contains the terms and conditions of each program or service we offer. Our agreements can range from less than one year to over five years and are subject to early termination by our customers or us for any reason, typically with 30 to 90 days’ notice.
In fiscal years 2016 , 2015 and 2014 , approximately 27% , 26% and 28% of our consolidated revenue, respectively, was generated from our international operations, and we expect this trend to continue. As a result, our revenue growth has been impacted, and we expect will continue to be impacted, by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
The market for IT products and services is generally characterized by declining unit prices and short product life cycles. Our overall business is also highly competitive on the basis of price. We set our sales price based on the market supply and demand characteristics for each particular product or bundle of products we distribute and solutions we provide. From time to time, we also participate in the incentive and rebate programs of our OEM suppliers. These programs are important determinants of the final sales price we charge to our reseller customers. To mitigate the risk of declining prices and obsolescence of our distribution inventory, our OEM suppliers generally offer us limited price protection and return rights for

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products that are marked down or discontinued by them. We carefully manage our inventory to maximize the benefit to us of these supplier provided protections.  
A significant portion of our Technology Solutions cost of revenue is the purchase price we pay our OEM suppliers for the products we sell, net of any incentives, rebates, price protection and purchase discounts received from our OEM suppliers. Cost of products revenue also consists of provisions for inventory losses and write-downs, freight expenses associated with the receipt in and shipment out of our inventory, and royalties due to OEM vendors. In addition, cost of revenue includes the cost of material, labor and overhead for our systems design and integration solutions. In our Concentrix segment, cost of revenue consists primarily of personnel costs related to contract delivery.
Revenue and cost of revenue in our Technology Solutions segment relate to products, and revenue and cost of revenue in our Concentrix segment relate to services.
Margins  
The Technology Solutions industry in which we operate is characterized by low gross profit as a percentage of revenue, or gross margin, and low income from operations as a percentage of revenue, or operating margin. Our Technology Solutions gross margin has fluctuated annually due to changes in the mix of products we offer, customers we sell to, incentives and rebates received from our OEM suppliers, competition, seasonality and replacement of less profitable business with investments in higher margin, more profitable lines, lower costs associated with increased efficiencies and inventory obsolescence. Should we experience increased competition arising from industry consolidation or low demand for IT products, our ability to maintain or improve our gross margin may be hindered. Generally, when our revenue becomes more concentrated on limited products or customers, our Technology Solutions gross margin tends to decrease due to increased pricing pressure from OEM suppliers or reseller customers. Concentrix gross margins, which are generally higher than those in our Technology Solutions segment, can be impacted by the mix of customer contracts, additional lead time for programs to be fully scalable and transition and initial set-up costs. Our operating margin has also fluctuated in the past, based primarily on our ability to achieve economies of scale, the management of our operating expenses, changes in the relative mix of our Technology Solutions and Concentrix revenue, and the timing of our acquisitions and investments. 
Economic and Industry Trends
Our Technology Solutions revenue is highly dependent on the end-market demand for IT and CE products. This end-market demand is influenced by many factors including the introduction of new IT and CE products and software by OEMs, replacement cycles for existing IT and CE products and overall economic growth and general business activity. A difficult and challenging economic environment may also lead to consolidation or decline in the IT and CE distribution industry and increased price-based competition. Our Technology Solutions segment also offers system design and integration solutions, providing purpose-built data servers. Business in our system design and solutions is highly dependent on the demand for cloud infrastructure and the number of key players in the market. Our Technology Solutions business is largely concentrated in the United States, Canada and Japan, so we are affected by demand for our products in those regions and the strengthening or weakening of the Canadian Dollar and Japanese Yen relative to the U.S. Dollar.
The customer engagement services industry in which our Concentrix segment operates is competitive. Customers’ performance measures are based on competitive pricing terms and quality of services. Accordingly, we could be subject to pricing pressure and may experience a decline in our average selling prices for our services. Our Concentrix business is largely concentrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, India, the Philippines, Japan, China, Canada and Australia. Accordingly, we would be impacted by economic strength or weakness in these geographies and by the strengthening or weakening of local currencies relative to U.S. Dollar. During the three-year period ended November 30, 2016, the economic environment was stable.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The discussions and analysis of our consolidated financial condition and results of operations are based on our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of any contingent assets and liabilities at the financial statement date, and reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. On an ongoing basis, we review and evaluate our estimates and assumptions, including those that relate to accounts receivable, vendor programs, inventories, goodwill and intangible assets, and income taxes. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and a variety of other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making our judgment about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily available from other sources. Actual results could differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

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We believe the following critical accounting policies involve the more significant judgments, estimates and/or assumptions used in the preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Revenue Recognition. Revenue from our Technology Solutions segment is categorized as products revenue in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Revenue from our Concentrix segment is categorized as services revenue in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
For the Technology Solutions segment, we generally recognize revenue on the sale of hardware and software products when they are shipped or delivered and on services when they are performed, if persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the sales price is fixed or determinable, collection of resulting accounts receivable is reasonably assured, risk of loss and title have transferred and product returns are reasonably estimable. Binding purchase orders from customers together with agreement to our terms and conditions of sale by way of an executed agreement or other signed document constitutes evidence of an arrangement. Where product acceptance provisions exist, assuming all other revenue recognition criterion are met, revenue is recognized upon the earlier of shipment/delivery for products that have been demonstrated to meet product specifications, customer acceptance or the lapse of acceptance provisions.
Provisions for sales returns and allowances are estimated based on historical data and are recorded concurrently with the recognition of revenue. These provisions are reviewed and adjusted periodically by the Company. Revenue is presented net of taxes collected from customers and remitted to government authorities. Revenue is reduced for early payment discounts and volume incentive rebates offered to customers. We recognize revenue on a net basis on certain contracts, including service contracts, post-contract software support services and extended warranty contracts, where we are not the primary obligor, by recognizing the margins earned in revenue with no associated cost of revenue.
For the Concentrix segment, we recognize revenue from services contracts when evidence of an arrangement exists, services are delivered, fees are fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. Service contracts may be based on a fixed price or on a fixed unit-price per transaction or other objective measure of output. Revenue on fixed price contracts is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract as services are provided. Revenue on unit-price transactions is recognized using an objective measure of output including staffing hours or the number of transactions processed by service agents. Customer contract terms can range from less than one year to more than five years. Revenue is reported net of any revenue-based taxes assessed by governmental authorities that are imposed on and concurrent with specific revenue-producing transactions.
Cost of Revenue.  Cost of products revenue represents cost from our Technology Solutions segment and cost of services revenue represents cost from our Concentrix segment.
For the Technology Solutions segment, cost of revenue includes the product price paid to OEM suppliers, net of any incentives, rebates and purchase discounts received from the OEM suppliers. Cost of revenue also consists of provisions for inventory losses and write-downs, shipping and handling costs and royalties due to OEM vendors. In addition, cost of revenue includes the cost of material, labor and overhead and warranty for design and integration activities.
For the Concentrix segment, recurring direct operating costs for services are recognized as incurred. Cost of services revenue consists primarily of personnel costs. Where a contract requires an up-front investment, which typically includes transition and set-up costs related to systems and processes, these amounts are deferred and amortized on a straight-line basis over the expected period of benefit, not to exceed the fixed term of the contract. We perform periodic reviews to assess the recoverability of deferred contract transition and setup costs. This review is done by comparing the estimated minimum remaining undiscounted cash flows of a contract to the unamortized contract costs. If such minimum undiscounted cash flows are not sufficient to recover the unamortized costs, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference between the estimated fair value and the carrying value. If a cash flow deficiency remains after reducing the carrying amount of the deferred costs, we evaluate any remaining long-lived assets related to that contract for impairment.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. We provide allowances for doubtful accounts on our accounts receivable for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make payments for outstanding balances. In estimating the required allowance, we take into consideration the overall quality and aging of the accounts receivable, credit evaluations of customers’ financial condition and existence of credit insurance. We also evaluate the collectability of accounts receivable based on specific customer circumstances, current economic trends, historical experience with collections and the value and adequacy of collateral received from customers.
OEM Supplier Programs. We receive funds from OEM suppliers for volume promotion programs, price protection and product rebates and record them as adjustments to cost of products revenue and/or the carrying value of inventories, as appropriate. Where there is a binding agreement, we track vendor promotional programs for volume discounts on a program-by-program basis and record them as a reduction to cost of revenue based on a systematic and rational allocation. We monitor

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the balances of vendor receivables on a quarterly basis and adjust the balances due for differences between expected and actual sales volume. Vendor receivables are generally collected through reductions authorized by the vendor to accounts payable. Funds received for specific marketing and infrastructure reimbursements, net of related costs, are recorded as adjustments to “Selling, general and administrative expenses,” and any excess reimbursement amount is recorded as an adjustment to cost of products revenue.
Inventories. Our inventory levels are based on our projections of future demand and market conditions. Any sudden decline in demand and/or rapid product improvements and technological changes can cause us to have excess and/or obsolete inventories. On an ongoing basis, we review for obsolete or unmarketable inventories and write-down our inventories to their estimated market value based upon our forecasts of future demand and market conditions. These write-downs are reflected in our cost of products revenue. If actual market conditions are less favorable than our forecasts, additional inventory write-downs may be required. Our estimates are influenced by the following considerations: sudden decline in demand due to economic downturns, rapid product improvements and technological changes, our ability to return to OEM suppliers a certain percentage of our purchases, and protection from loss in value of inventory under our OEM supplier agreements.
Goodwill. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired in an acquisition. We assess potential impairment of our goodwill when there is evidence that recent events or changes in circumstances have made recovery of an asset’s carrying value unlikely. We also assess potential impairment of our goodwill on an annual basis during our fourth quarter, regardless if there is evidence or suspicion of impairment. The amount of an impairment loss would be recognized as the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value.
Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level by first performing a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. The factors that are considered in the qualitative analysis include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors such as increases in product cost, labor, or other costs that would have a negative effect on earnings and cash flows, and other relevant entity-specific events and information.
If the reporting unit does not pass the qualitative assessment, then the reporting unit’s carrying value is compared to its fair value. The fair values of the reporting units are estimated using market and discounted cash flow approaches. The assumptions used in the market approach are based on the value of a business through an analysis of multiples of guideline companies and recent sales or offerings of a comparable entity. The assumptions used in the discounted cash flow approach are based on historical and forecasted revenue, operating costs, future economic conditions, and other relevant factors. Goodwill is considered impaired if the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value. The annual goodwill impairment analysis did not result in an impairment charge for fiscal years 2016 , 2015 and 2014 .
Long-lived assets. We review the recoverability of our long-lived assets, such as intangible assets, property and equipment and certain other assets, when events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate the carrying value of the asset group may not be recoverable. The assessment of possible impairment is based on our ability to recover the carrying value of the asset or asset group from the expected future pre-tax cash flows, undiscounted and without interest charges, of the related operations. If these cash flows are less than the carrying value of such assets, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference between estimated fair value and carrying value.
Determining the fair value of a reporting unit, intangible asset or other long-lived asset is judgmental and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. We base our fair value estimates on assumptions that we believe are reasonable, but are uncertain and subject to changes in market conditions.
Income Taxes. We estimate our income taxes in each of the tax jurisdictions in which we operate. Our current tax expense is estimated after adjusting for differences resulting from the different treatment of certain items and foreign tax credits. These differences may result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. We assess the likelihood that our deferred tax assets, which include net operating loss carry forwards and temporary differences that are expected to be deductible in future years, will be recoverable from future taxable income or other tax planning strategies. If recovery is not likely, we provide a valuation allowance based on our estimates of future taxable income in the various tax jurisdictions, and the amount of deferred taxes in excess of amounts that are ultimately considered more likely than not realizable. The provision for current and deferred taxes involves evaluations and judgments of uncertainties in the interpretation of complex tax regulations by various tax authorities. Actual results could differ from our estimates.
We recognize tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if that tax position is more likely than not to be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. We measure the tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement. We recognize interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the provisions for income taxes.

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Acquisitions
We continually seek to augment organic growth in both our business segments with strategic acquisitions of businesses and assets that complement and expand our existing capabilities. We also divest businesses that we deem no longer strategic to our ongoing operations. In our Technology Solutions business we seek to acquire new OEM relationships, enhance our supply chain and integration capabilities, and the services we provide to our OEM suppliers and customers. In our Concentrix segment we seek to further enhance our capabilities and domain expertise in our key verticals, and further expand into higher value service offerings. We are also strategically focused on further increasing our scale to support our customers.
Acquisitions during fiscal year 2016
On August 1, 2016, we acquired the Minacs group of companies (“Minacs”), which provide integrated business process outsourcing services, for a preliminary purchase price of $435.6 million in cash, subject to post-closing working capital adjustments. The preliminary purchase price allocation consisted of $45.7 million of net tangible assets, $193.4 million of intangible assets and $196.5 million of goodwill.
The acquisition has been included in the Concentrix segment. We believe the acquisition provides greater scale and strengthens our position as a top global provider of customer engagement services, enhances domain expertise in Concentrix’s automotive industry vertical and accelerates Marketing Optimization and Internet of Things solutions with Minacs’ proprietary technology. Minacs contributed approximately $157.0 million in revenue and $3.9 million of net income during fiscal year 2016.
Acquisitions during fiscal year 2014
In fiscal year 2014, we acquired the assets of the Customer Relationship Management, or CRM, business of International Business Machines, or IBM, for a purchase price of $425.7 million. A portion of the purchase price was settled through the issuance of 1,266,357 shares of our common stock at a fair value of $71.1 million, with the remaining amount of the purchase price paid in cash. The purchase price allocation consisted of $22.5 million of net tangible assets, $269.0 million of intangible assets and $134.2 million of goodwill.
The acquisition has been integrated into the Concentrix segment. It expanded our service portfolio, delivery capabilities and geographic reach, and brought deep process expertise and managerial talent, and contributed approximately $900 million in revenue in fiscal year 2014.
Results of Operations  
The following table sets forth, for the indicated periods, data as percentages of total revenue:  
Statements of Operations Data:
Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Products revenue
88.83
 %
 
89.49
 %
 
92.17
 %
Services revenue
11.17

 
10.51

 
7.83

Total revenue
100.00

 
100.00

 
100.00

Cost of products revenue
(84.03
)
 
(84.54
)
 
(87.26
)
Cost of services revenue
(6.85
)
 
(6.52
)
 
(4.80
)
Gross profit
9.12

 
8.94

 
7.94

Selling, general and administrative expenses
(6.42
)
 
(6.28
)
 
(5.71
)
Operating income
2.70

 
2.66

 
2.23

Interest expense and finance charges, net
(0.21
)
 
(0.20
)
 
(0.19
)
Other income (expense), net
0.04

 
(0.01
)
 
0.01

Income before income taxes
2.53

 
2.45

 
2.05

Provision for income taxes
(0.86
)
 
(0.89
)
 
(0.75
)
Net income
1.67

 
1.56

 
1.30

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
(0.00
)
 
(0.00
)
 
(0.00
)
Net income attributable to SYNNEX Corporation
1.67

 
1.56

 
1.30


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Certain non-GAAP financial information
In addition to disclosing financial results that are determined in accordance with GAAP, we also disclose certain non-GAAP financial information, including:
Revenue in constant currency, which is revenue adjusted for the translation effect of foreign currencies so that certain financial results can be viewed without the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, thereby facilitating period-to-period comparisons of our business performance. Revenue in constant currency is calculated by translating the revenue of fiscal years 2016 and 2015 in local currency using their comparable prior year’s currency conversion rate. This approach is used for countries where the functional currency is the local currency. Generally, when the dollar either strengthens or weakens against other currencies, the growth at constant currency rates or adjusting for currency will be higher or lower than growth reported at actual exchange rates.
Non-GAAP operating income, which is operating income as adjusted to exclude acquisition-related and integration expenses, restructuring costs and amortization of intangible assets.
Non-GAAP operating margin, which is non-GAAP operating income (as defined above) divided by revenue.
Adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, or adjusted EBITDA, which is non-GAAP operating income as defined above after excluding depreciation.
Non-GAAP diluted earnings per common share (“EPS”), which is diluted EPS excluding the per share, tax effected impact of (i) acquisition-related and integration expenses, (ii) restructuring costs, and (iii) amortization of intangible assets.
We believe that providing this additional information is useful to the reader to better assess and understand our operating performance, especially when comparing results with previous periods and for planning and forecasting in future periods, primarily because management typically monitors the business adjusted for these items in addition to GAAP results. Management also uses these non-GAAP measures to establish operational goals and, in some cases, for measuring performance for compensation purposes. However, analysis of results on a non-GAAP basis should be used as a complement to, and in conjunction with, data presented in accordance with GAAP. Additionally, because these non-GAAP measures are not calculated in accordance with GAAP, they may not necessarily be comparable to similarly titled measures employed by other companies .

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Non-GAAP Financial Information:
Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Consolidated
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
14,061,837

 
$
13,338,397

 
$
13,839,590

Foreign currency translation
37,268

 
439,229

 

Revenue in constant currency
$
14,099,105

 
$
13,777,626

 
$
13,839,590

 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income
$
379,596

 
$
354,552

 
$
308,507

Acquisition-related and integration expenses
10,393

 
10,109

 
43,036

Restructuring costs
4,255

 

 

Amortization of intangibles
55,490

 
54,756

 
55,161

Non-GAAP operating income
$
449,734

 
$
419,417

 
$
406,704

Depreciation
65,803

 
48,754

 
36,538

Adjusted EBITDA
$
515,537

 
$
468,171

 
$
443,242

 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating margin
2.70
%
 
2.66
%
 
2.23
%
Non-GAAP operating margin
3.20
%
 
3.14
%
 
2.94
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
Technology Solutions
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income
$
315,485

 
$
302,950

 
$
305,499

Amortization of intangibles
2,657

 
2,630

 
3,538

Non-GAAP operating income
$
318,142

 
$
305,580

 
$
309,037

Depreciation
13,935

 
12,475

 
10,817

Adjusted EBITDA
$
332,077

 
$
318,055

 
$
319,854

 
 
 
 
 
 
Concentrix
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income
$
63,877

 
$
51,127

 
$
2,455

Acquisition-related and integration expenses
10,393

 
10,109

 
43,036

Restructuring costs
4,255

 

 

Amortization of intangibles
52,833

 
52,126

 
51,623

Non-GAAP operating income
$
131,358

 
$
113,362

 
$
97,114

Depreciation
52,102

 
36,755

 
25,953

Adjusted EBITDA
$
183,460

 
$
150,117

 
$
123,067

 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted EPS
$
5.88

 
$
5.24

 
$
4.57

Acquisition-related and integration expenses
0.26

 
0.25

 
1.09

Restructuring costs
0.11

 

 

Amortization of intangibles
1.39

 
1.38

 
1.40

Income taxes related to the above  (1)
(0.60
)
 
(0.59
)
 
(0.91
)
Non-GAAP diluted EPS (2)
$
7.04

 
$
6.28

 
$
6.16

__________________________
(1) The tax effect of the non-GAAP adjustments was calculated using the applicable effective tax rate during the respective years.
(2) The sum of the components of Non-GAAP diluted EPS may not agree to totals, as presented, due to rounding.

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Fiscal Years Ended November 30, 2016 , 2015 and 2014
Revenue  
 
Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
 
Percent Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 to 2015
 
2015 to 2014
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
14,061,837

 
$
13,338,397

 
$
13,839,590

 
5.4
%
 
(3.6
)%
Technology Solutions revenue
12,490,718

 
11,936,660

 
12,755,514

 
4.6
%
 
(6.4
)%
Concentrix revenue
1,587,736

 
1,416,670

 
1,096,214

 
12.1
%
 
29.2
 %
Inter-segment elimination
(16,617
)
 
(14,933
)
 
(12,138
)
 


 


In our Technology Solutions segment, we distribute in excess of 30,000 technology products (as measured by active SKUs) from more than 300 IT, CE and OEM suppliers to more than 20,000 resellers. The prices of our products are highly dependent on the volumes purchased within a product category. The products we sell from one period to the next are often not comparable because of rapid changes in product models and features. We also design and integrate data center servers. The revenue generated in our Concentrix segment relates to business services focused on process optimization, customer engagement strategy and back office automation. Inter-segment elimination represents services and transactions generated between our reportable segments that are eliminated on consolidation. Substantially all of the inter-segment revenue represent services provided by the Concentrix segment to the Technology Solutions segment.
Revenue in our Technology Solutions segment increased in fiscal year 2016 from fiscal year 2015 mainly due to strong demand for our system design and integration solutions, partially offset by lower sales in Japan. Revenue in fiscal year 2016 was unfavorably impacted by foreign currency translation, primarily from the weakening of the Canadian Dollar, partially offset by the strengthening of the Japanese Yen. On a constant currency basis, revenue in our Technology Solutions segment increased by 4.7% during fiscal year 2016, compared to fiscal year 2015.
By product category, our sales of system components and integration solutions and software in fiscal year 2016 increased 16% and 4%, respectively, while sales of peripherals decreased 4%. Sales of IT systems and networking equipment in fiscal year 2016 were consistent with fiscal year 2015. The increase in the sale of system components and integration solutions was due to strong demand for our system design and integration solutions. The increase in the sale of software was primarily due to higher sales from IT system software and software related services. The decrease in the sale of peripherals was due to lower sales of audio products and printers.
The increase in revenue in our Concentrix segment in fiscal year 2016, compared to fiscal year 2015, was primarily due to the acquisition of Minacs in August 2016, increased volume and the expansion of services to existing customers and new customer contract signings. This increase was partially offset by the planned lapsing of a government contract and unfavorable foreign currency translation, primarily due to the weakening of the British Pound, Indian Rupee and Chinese Yuan, partially offset by the strengthening of the Japanese Yen. On a constant currency basis, revenue in our Concentrix segment increased by 13.8% during fiscal year 2016, compared to fiscal year 2015.
Revenue in our Technology Solutions segment decreased in fiscal year 2015 from fiscal year 2014 primarily due to the loss of a significant vendor providing consumer retail products, as a result of its acquisition by a third party, and the negative impact of foreign currency translation, primarily from the weakening of the Canadian Dollar and Japanese Yen. On a constant currency basis, revenue in our Technology Solutions segment during fiscal year 2015 decreased by 3.7%, compared to fiscal year 2014.
By product category, our sales of peripherals, IT Systems and software in fiscal year 2015 were lower by 14%, 6% and 1%, respectively, in comparison to fiscal year 2014. The decrease in the sale of peripherals was due to lower sales of audio products as a result of the loss of one significant vendor, partially offset by higher sales of system accessories. The decrease in the sale of IT systems was due to weaker demand for desktops, laptops and tablets. This revenue decrease was offset by a 13% increase in the sale of networking equipment and a 3% increase in integration solutions and systems components sales.
The increase in revenue in our Concentrix segment in fiscal year 2015, compared to fiscal year 2014, was primarily due to the full year impact of the acquisition of the IBM CRM business with the initial closing completed on January 31, 2014 and the subsequent closings completed on April 30, 2014 and September 30, 2015, increased volume and the expansion of services to existing customers and new customer contract signings. This increase was partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation, primarily due to the weakening of the British Pound, Japanese Yen, Australian Dollar and the Euro. On a constant currency basis, revenue in our Concentrix segment increased by 37.2% during fiscal year 2015, compared to fiscal year 2014.

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Gross Profit
 
Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
 
Percent Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 to 2015
 
2015 to 2014
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross profit
$
1,282,965

 
$
1,191,791

 
$
1,099,004

 
7.7
%
 
8.4
 %
Gross margin
9.12
%
 
8.94
%
 
7.94
%
 

 

Technology Solutions gross profit
675,239

 
659,830

 
679,631

 
2.3
%
 
(2.9
)%
Technology Solutions gross margin
5.41
%
 
5.53
%
 
5.33
%
 
 
 
 
Concentrix gross profit
615,447

 
538,314

 
423,897

 
14.3
%
 
27.0
 %
Concentrix gross margin
38.76
%
 
38.00
%
 
38.67
%
 
 
 
 
Inter-segment elimination
(7,721
)
 
(6,353
)
 
(4,524
)
 
 
 
 
Our gross margin is affected by a variety of factors, including competition, average selling prices, mix of products and services we sell, our customers, product costs along with rebate and discount programs from our suppliers, reserves or settlement adjustments, freight costs, charges for inventory losses, acquisitions and divestitures of business units and fluctuations in revenue. Concentrix margins, which are generally higher than those in our Technology Solutions segment, can be impacted by customer mix and pricing, additional lead time for programs to be fully scalable, and transition and initial set-up costs.
Our Technology Solutions gross profit increased in fiscal year 2016 as compared to fiscal year 2015 primarily due to strong demand for our system design and integration solutions. In addition, profit from our specialty services and commercial products increased. Gross margin in our Technology Solutions segment decreased slightly in fiscal year 2016 compared to the prior year as a result of product mix and foreign currency exchange benefits associated with our system design and integration solutions received in fiscal year 2015.
Our Concentrix gross profit in fiscal year 2016 increased as compared to fiscal year 2015, primarily due to the acquisition of Minacs and the improved performance from one previously loss-making contract. This contract generated profit of $4.4 million in fiscal year 2016, but incurred losses of $17.8 million in the prior year. Concentrix gross margin benefited from the profitability from the previously loss-making contract mentioned above and the lapsing of one government contract that had lower than average gross margin. This benefit was partially offset by the mix of customer sales.
Our Technology Solutions gross profit decreased in fiscal year 2015 as compared to fiscal year 2014 due to a decrease in our products revenue as mentioned earlier. This decrease in gross profit was partially offset by foreign currency exchange benefits associated with our system design and integration solutions and lower inventory reserves. Technology Solutions gross margin in fiscal year 2015 benefited from the aforementioned foreign currency exchange benefit and lower inventory reserves.
The increase in Concentrix gross profit in fiscal year 2015 is primarily due to higher revenue driven by the full year impact of our acquisition of the IBM CRM business with the initial closing completed on January 31, 2014 and the second closing completed on April 30, 2014. These increases in gross profit were partially offset by losses of $17.8 million associated with one loss-making customer contract mentioned above and foreign currency translation losses. Gross margin in our Concentrix segment was lower in fiscal year 2015 compared to fiscal year 2014 primarily due to losses from one customer contract as previously mentioned.

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Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
 
Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
 
Percent Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 to 2015
 
2015 to 2014
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
$
903,369

 
$
837,239

 
$
790,497

 
7.9
%
 
5.9
 %
Percentage of revenue
6.42
%
 
6.28
%
 
5.71
%
 
 
 
 
Technology Solutions selling, general and administrative expenses
359,754

 
356,880

 
374,133

 
0.8
%
 
(4.6
)%
Technology Solutions percentage of revenue
2.88
%
 
2.99
%
 
2.93
%
 
 
 
 
Concentrix selling, general and administrative expenses
551,570

 
487,187

 
421,442

 
13.2
%
 
15.6
 %
Concentrix percentage of revenue
34.74
%
 
34.39
%
 
38.45
%
 
 
 
 
Inter-segment elimination
(7,955
)
 
(6,828
)
 
(5,078
)
 
 
 
 
  Our selling, general and administrative expenses primarily consist of personnel costs such as salaries, commissions, bonuses, share-based compensation and temporary personnel costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses also include cost of warehouse, delivery centers and other non-integration facilities, utility expenses, legal and professional fees, depreciation on our capital equipment, bad debt expense, amortization of our non-technology related intangible assets, and marketing expenses, offset in part by reimbursements from our OEM suppliers.
The increase in our selling, general and administrative expenses in fiscal year 2016, compared to fiscal year 2015, was primarily due to the acquisition of Minacs and a $17.0 million increase in depreciation primarily to support growth in our Concentrix segment. In addition, we incurred $4.3 million of restructuring costs primarily related to lease termination and employee related costs for closed business activities in three Concentrix delivery centers in North America during fiscal year 2016. This increase was partially offset by the favorable impact of foreign currency translation, primarily from the weakening of the Indian Rupee, British Pound, Philippine Peso and Canadian Dollar, benefitted by a strengthening of the Japanese Yen. We incurred $10.4 million acquisition-related and integration expenses in fiscal year 2016 compared to $10.1 million in fiscal year 2015. Amortization of intangible assets included in “Selling, general and administrative expenses” was $54.3 million in fiscal year 2016, compared to $53.6 million in fiscal year 2015.
The increase in our selling, general and administrative expenses in the fiscal year 2015, compared to fiscal year 2014, was primarily due to higher overhead costs to support growth in our Concentrix segment and full year impact of IBM CRM business, partially offset by lower integration expenses in our Concentrix segment related to the IBM CRM business acquisition in fiscal year 2014 and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuation, primarily due to the weakening of Japanese Yen, Canadian Dollar and Indian Rupee. We incurred $10.1 million acquisition-related and integration expenses in fiscal year 2015 compared to $43.0 million in fiscal year 2014. Amortization of intangible assets included in “Selling, general and administrative expenses” was $53.6 million in fiscal year 2015, compared to $54.5 million in fiscal year 2014.
Operating Income
 
Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
 
Percent Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 to 2015
 
2015 to 2014
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income
$
379,596

 
$
354,552

 
$
308,507

 
7.1
%
 
14.9
 %
Operating margin
2.70
%
 
2.66
%
 
2.23
%
 
 
 
 
Technology Solutions operating income
315,485

 
302,950

 
305,499

 
4.1
%
 
(0.8
)%
Technology Solutions operating margin
2.53
%
 
2.54
%
 
2.40
%
 
 
 
 
Concentrix operating income
63,877

 
51,127

 
2,455

 
24.9
%
 
1,982.6
 %
Concentrix operating margin
4.02
%
 
3.61
%
 
0.22
%
 
 
 
 
Inter-segment elimination
234

 
475

 
553

 

 


Operating income in our Technology Solutions segment in fiscal year 2016 increased compared to the prior year primarily due to higher revenue and profit from our system design and integration solutions, our specialty services and commercial products, partially offset by lower operating income in Japan. Technology Solutions segment operating margin was consistent with the prior year.

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Operating income and margin in our Concentrix segment increased in fiscal year 2016 compared to the prior year primarily due to the improved profit and margin from the previously loss-making contract discussed above and the favorable impact of foreign currency translation. We have large delivery service centers in India and the Philippines, and experienced a weakening in the Indian Rupee and Philippine Peso compared to fiscal year 2015. This foreign currency translation benefit was partially offset by the weakening of the British Pound. The acquisition of Minacs in August 2016 contributed $3.8 million of operating income for fiscal year 2016. The increase in operating income was partially offset by the lapsing of one government contract.
Our operating margin was higher in fiscal year 2015 compared to fiscal year 2014 primarily due to higher profit in our Concentrix segment. The operating margin in our Technology Solutions segment in fiscal year 2015 increased primarily due to higher margin on products and solutions. Operating margin in our Concentrix segment in fiscal year 2015 increased primarily due to continued investments in our priority verticals, including banking and financial services, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, insurance and technology. In addition, we benefited from lower acquisition-related and integration expenses for the IBM CRM acquisition compared to fiscal year 2014 as mentioned above. IBM CRM acquisition-related and integration expenses were $10.1 million in 2015, compared to $43.0 million in fiscal year 2014.
Interest Expense and Finance Charges, Net
 
Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
 
Percent Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 to 2015
 
2015 to 2014
 
 
 
(in thousands)

 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense and finance charges, net
$
28,993

 
$
26,296

 
$
25,187

 
10.3
%
 
4.4
%
Percentage of revenue
0.21
%
 
0.20
%
 
0.19
%
 
 
 
 
Amounts recorded in interest expense and finance charges, net, consist primarily of interest expense paid on our lines of credit and term loans, fees associated with third party accounts receivable flooring arrangements and the sale or pledge of accounts receivable through our securitization facility, offset by income earned on our cash investments.
The increase in our interest expense and finance charges, net in fiscal year 2016, compared to fiscal year 2015, was due to additional draws against our lines of credit in fiscal year 2016 to fund the Minacs acquisition and to support our growth, and the impact of step-up interest rate swaps related to our term loan in the United States. In May 2015, we borrowed an additional $411.3 million under an increased term loan commitment in the United States and paid down our United States securitization arrangement and revolving line of credit to secure higher credit availability. The term loan carries a higher rate of interest than our revolving lines of credit and our accounts receivable securitization arrangement. At the same time, we entered into step-up interest rate swaps, which effectively converted a portion of our floating rate term loan in the United States to a fixed interest rate, which is higher than the prevailing floating rate. The fixed rate on the swaps steps up to a higher rate each year.
The increase in our interest expense and finance charges, net in fiscal year 2015, compared to fiscal year 2014, was primarily due to lower interest income from our long term projects in Mexico which ended in fiscal year 2014. Gross interest expense decreased by $0.6 million in fiscal year 2015 as compared to fiscal year 2014 primarily due to lower average borrowings during fiscal year 2015 as compared to fiscal year 2014. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in flooring fees in fiscal year 2015 as compared to fiscal year 2014.
Other Income (expense), Net
 
Fiscal Years Ended November 30,
 
Percent Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016 to 2015
 
2015 to 2014
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense), net
$
5,461

 
$
(1,061
)
 
$
962

 
614.7
%
 
(210.3
)%
Percentage of revenue
0.04
%
 
(0.01
)%
 
0.01
%
 
 
 
 
  Amounts recorded as other income (expense), net include foreign currency transaction gains and losses, investment gains and losses and other non-operating gains and losses.
The increase in other income (expense), net in fiscal year 2016, compared to fiscal year 2015, was primarily due to a $5.0 million benefit received from class-action legal settlements in our Technology Solutions segment.

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The decrease in other income (expense), net in fiscal year 2015, compared to fiscal year 2014, was primarily due to a $2.9 million benefit received in fiscal year 2014 from a class-action legal settlement. This decrease was partially offset by higher foreign exchange gains of $0.9 million in fiscal year 2015.
Provision for Income Taxes
Income taxes consist of our current and deferred tax expense resulting from our income earned in domestic and foreign jurisdictions.
Our effective tax rate in fiscal year 2016 was 34.0% , compared to 36.2% and 36.6% in fiscal years 2015 and 2014 , respectively. The decrease in our effective tax rate in fiscal year 2016 and 2015, compared to their respective prior years, was due to the mix of taxable income in different geographic regions and, to a lesser extent, the reversal of certain tax reserves as a result of the expiration of the statute of limitations in certain tax jurisdiction.
Further information on the treatment of undistributed foreign earnings and a reconciliation of the federal statutory income tax rate to our effective tax rate can be found in Note 16 of Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests represents the share of net income attributable to others, which is recognized for the portion of our subsidiaries’ equity not owned by us. The change in the net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests as compared to the prior two years was not material to our results of operations.
Liquidity and Capital Resources  
Cash Conversion Cycle
 
Three Months Ended
 
November 30, 2016
 
November 30, 2015
 
November 30, 2014
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Days sales outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue (products and services)
$
3,886,902

 
$
3,549,617

 
$
3,823,869

Accounts receivable, including receivable from related parties
1,756,596

 
1,759,605

 
2,091,843

Days sales outstanding
41

 
45

 
50

 
 
 
 
 
 
Days inventory outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue (products and services)
$
3,508,116

 
$
3,236,881

 
$
3,510,247

Inventories
1,741,734

 
1,328,967

 
1,398,463

Days inventory outstanding
45

 
37

 
36

 
 
 
 
 
 
Days payable outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue (products and services)
$
3,508,116

 
$
3,236,881

 
$
3,510,247

Accounts payable, including payable to related parties
1,713,834

 
1,452,855

 
1,590,735

Days payable outstanding
44

 
41

 
41

 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash conversion cycle
42

 
41

 
45

Cash Flows  
Our Technology Solutions business is working capital intensive. Our working capital needs are primarily to finance accounts receivable and inventory. We rely heavily on term loans, accounts receivable arrangements, our securitization programs and our revolver programs for our working capital needs. We have financed our growth and cash needs to date primarily through cash generated from operations and financing activities. As a general rule, when sales volumes are increasing, our net investment in working capital dollars typically increases, which generally results in decreased cash flow generated from operating activities. Conversely, when sales volume decreases, our net investment in working capital dollars typically decreases, which generally results in increases in cash flows generated from operating activities. Our cash conversion

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cycle was 42 days, 41 days and 45 days at the end of the fiscal years 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We calculate cash conversion cycle as days of the last fiscal quarter’s sales outstanding in accounts receivable plus days of supply on hand in inventory, less days of the last fiscal quarter’s purchases outstanding in accounts payable.
To increase our market share and better serve our customers, we may further expand our operations through investments or acquisitions. We expect that such expansion would require an initial investment in working capital, personnel, facilities and operations. These investments or acquisitions would likely be funded primarily by our existing cash and cash equivalents, additional borrowings, or issuing common stock.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $327.0 million in fiscal year 2016 , primarily generated from our net income of $235.0 million , adjustments for non-cash items of $119.4 million , an increase in accounts payable of $265.6 million and a decrease of accounts receivable of $97.5 million , partially offset by an increase in inventory of $410.2 million . The increases in both accounts payable and inventory were primarily due to higher purchases as a result of strong demand for our system design and integration solutions. The decrease in accounts receivable was primarily due to an improved collection cycle. The adjustments for non-cash items primarily consist of $121.3 million of depreciation and amortization expense.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $643.6 million in fiscal year 2015, primarily generated from our net income of $208.6 million , adjustments for non-cash items of $120.4 million and a decrease in accounts receivable of $293.1 million . The adjustments for non-cash items primarily consist of $103.5 million of depreciation and amortization expense.
Net cash used in operating activities was $234.8 million in fiscal year 2014, primarily due to an increase in accounts receivable of $528.1 million and an increase of inventory of $330.2 million . This cash outflow was partially offset by net income of $180.2 million , non-cash items of $81.0 million , an increase of accounts payable of $206.4 million and the net change in other assets and liabilities of $156.0 million , which was primarily attributable to an increase of accrued liabilities of $167.7 million. The increases in our working capital balances were primarily the result of our higher business volumes, the growth of our system design and integration solutions business and the acquisition of the IBM CRM business in fiscal year 2014. The adjustments for non-cash items primarily consist of $91.7 million of depreciation and amortization expense.
Net cash used in investing activities in fiscal year 2016 was $451.9 million , primarily due to payments of $415.4 million for the acquisition of Minacs and $123.2 million invested in capital expenditures primarily to support growth in our Concentrix segment. The cash outflow was partially offset by a decrease in restricted cash of $82.5 million as restrictions on our lockbox collections under our borrowing arrangements were removed during fiscal year 2016.
Net cash used in investing activities in fiscal year 2015 was $116.1 million, primarily due to $100.1 million invested in capital expenditures to support our growth as a result of our acquisition of the IBM CRM business and higher organic business volumes and an increase in restricted cash of $54.4 million, partially offset by cash receipts of $37.3 million from IBM towards working capital and other post-closing adjustments related to the acquisition of the IBM CRM business, net of holdback payments to IBM.
Net cash used in investing activities in fiscal year 2014 was $441.7 million, primarily due to cash payments of $384.4 million for the acquisition of the IBM CRM business and $57.4 million invested in capital expenditures to support our growth as a result of our acquisition and higher organic business volumes.
Net cash provided by financing activities in fiscal year 2016 was $180.2 million , consisting primarily of proceeds of $217.8 million from borrowings, net of payments and issuance costs to fund the acquisition of Minacs and to support growth in both our segments. The cash inflow was partially offset by dividend payments of $33.7 million .
Net cash used in financing activities in fiscal year 2015 was $355.1 million, consisting primarily of $245.2 million of payments and issuance costs under our borrowing arrangements, net of receipts, a decrease in our book overdraft of $82.2 million and dividend payments of $22.6 million. During fiscal year 2015, we amended our U.S. credit facility to increase the term loan to $625.0 million and paid in full outstanding borrowings under our U.S. securitization arrangement and our U.S. revolving credit facility.
Net cash generated from financing activities in fiscal year 2014 was $701.9 million, consisting primarily of $678.8 million of net receipts from borrowings and an increase in our book overdraft of $27.8 million. The increase in borrowings was primarily to fund the acquisition and working capital requirements of the newly acquired IBM CRM business and our working capital requirement related to our systems design and integration solutions business. These cash inflows were partially offset by other payment of $7.5 million representing contingent consideration for prior acquisitions and dividends paid of $4.9 million.
We believe our current cash balances and credit availability are sufficient to support our operating activities for at least the next twelve months.

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Capital Resources  
Our cash and cash equivalents totaled $380.7 million and $336.1 million as of November 30, 2016 and 2015 , respectively. Of our total cash and cash equivalents, the cash held by our foreign subsidiaries was $200.0 million and $146.5 million as of November 30, 2016 and 2015 , respectively. Repatriation of the cash held by our foreign subsidiaries would be subject to United States federal income taxes. Also, repatriation of some foreign balances is restricted by local laws. However, we have historically fully utilized and reinvested all foreign cash to fund our foreign operations and expansion. If in the future our intentions change and we repatriate the cash back to the United States, we will report in our consolidated financial statements the impact of the applicable taxes depending upon the planned timing and manner of such repatriation. Presently, we believe we have sufficient resources, cash flow and liquidity within the United States to fund current and expected future working capital, investment and other general corporate funding requirements.
As of November 30, 2016 , there were approximately $491.6 million of cumulative undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries. Repatriation of the undistributed earnings would be subject to United States federal income taxes, less applicable foreign taxes. Also, repatriation of some foreign balances is restricted by local laws. We have not provided for U.S. federal income tax or foreign withholding taxes on foreign subsidiaries’ undistributed earnings as currently we have no plan to repatriate those earnings back to the United States. Further, it is not currently practical to estimate the amount of income tax that might be payable if any earnings were to be distributed by individual foreign subsidiaries. However, if in the future we repatriate the undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries to the United States in the form of dividend or otherwise, we will include the impact of expected U.S. taxes as well as local taxes and withholding taxes in the provision for income taxes and also in the deferred taxes or tax payable liabilities depending upon the planned timing and manner of such repatriation.
We believe that our available cash and cash equivalents balances, the cash flows expected to be generated from operations and our existing sources of liquidity will be sufficient to satisfy our current and planned working capital and investment needs for the next twelve months in all geographies. We also believe that our longer-term working capital, planned capital expenditures, anticipated stock repurchases, dividend payments and other general corporate funding requirements will be satisfied through cash flows from operations and, to the extent necessary, from our borrowing facilities and future financial market activities.
Historically, we have renewed our accounts receivable securitization program and our U.S. credit facility agreement on, or prior to, their respective expiration dates. We have no reason to believe that these arrangements will not be renewed as we continue to be in good credit standing with the participating financial institutions. We have had similar borrowing arrangements with various financial institutions throughout our years as a public company.
On-Balance Sheet Arrangements  
We have an accounts receivable securitization program, or the AR Arrangement, to provide additional capital for our operations. The AR Arrangement expires on November 1, 2019. One of our subsidiaries, which is the borrower under the AR Arrangement, can borrow up to a maximum of $600.0 million based upon eligible trade accounts receivable denominated in United States dollars. The AR Arrangement includes an accordion feature to allow requests for an increase in the lenders’ commitment by an additional $120.0 million. The effective borrowing cost under the AR Arrangement is a blended rate that includes prevailing dealer commercial paper rates and the daily London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, plus a program fee of 0.75% per annum based on the used portion of the commitment, and a facility fee of 0.35% per annum payable on the adjusted commitment of the lenders. As of November 30, 2016 , $262.9 million was outstanding under the AR Arrangement. There were no borrowings outstanding as of November 30, 2015 .
Under the terms of the AR Arrangement, we and one of our United States subsidiaries sell, on a revolving basis, our receivables (other than certain specifically excluded receivables) to a wholly-owned, bankruptcy-remote subsidiary. The borrowings are funded by pledging all of the rights, title and interest in and to the receivables acquired by our bankruptcy-remote subsidiary as security. Any borrowings under the AR Arrangement are recorded as debt on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. As is customary in trade accounts receivable securitization arrangements like the AR Arrangement, where some of the loans are funded through one or more lender’s affiliated asset-backed commercial paper programs, a credit rating agency’s downgrade of the third party issuer of commercial paper or of a back-up liquidity provider (which provides a source of funding if the commercial paper market cannot be accessed) could result in an increase in our cost of borrowing or loss of our financing capacity under these programs if the commercial paper issuer or liquidity back-up provider is not replaced, or if the lender whose commercial paper issuer or liquidity back-up provider is not replaced does not elect to offer us an alternate rate. Loss of such financing capacity could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
In November 2013, we entered into a senior secured credit agreement, or the U.S. Credit Agreement, which was comprised of a $275.0 million revolving credit facility and a $225.0 million term loan. In May 2015, the U.S. Credit Agreement was amended to increase the term loan to $625.0 million . We may request incremental commitments to increase the principal

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amount of revolving loans or term loans available under the U.S. Credit Agreement up to $350.0 million . The U.S. Credit Agreement matures in May 2020. Interest on borrowings under the U.S. Credit Agreement can be based on LIBOR or a base rate at our option. Loans borrowed under the U.S. Credit Agreement bear interest, in the case of LIBOR loans, at a per annum rate equal to the applicable LIBOR, plus a margin which may range from 1.50% to 2.25% , based on our consolidated leverage ratios, as determined in accordance with the U.S. Credit Agreement. Loans borrowed under the U.S. Credit Agreement that are not LIBOR loans, and are instead base rate loans, bear interest at a per annum rate equal to (i) the greatest of (A) the Federal Funds Rate plus a margin of 1/2 of 1.0%, (B) LIBOR plus 1.0% per annum, and (C) the rate of interest announced, from time to time, by the agent, Bank of America, N.A., as its “prime rate,” plus (ii) a margin which may range from 0.50% to 1.25% , based on our consolidated leverage ratios as determined in accordance with the U.S. Credit Agreement. The unused revolving credit facility is subject to a commitment fee ranging from 0.20% to 0.35% per annum, based on the Company’s consolidated leverage ratios. The outstanding principal amount of the term loan is repayable in quarterly installments, in an amount equal to (a) for each of the first eight full calendar quarters ending after the U.S. Credit Agreement amendment entered in May 2015, 1.25% of the amended principal amount of the term loan, (b) for each of the next four calendar quarters ending thereafter, 1.875% of the amended principal amount of the term loan, (c) for each calendar quarter ending thereafter, 2.50% of the amended principal amount of the term loan and (d) on the May 2020 maturity date of the term loan, the outstanding principal amount of the term loan. Our obligations under the U.S. Credit Agreement are secured by substantially all of the parent company’s and its United States domestic subsidiaries’ assets and are guaranteed by certain of our United States domestic subsidiaries.
As of November 30, 2016 and November 30, 2015 , balances outstanding under the term loan component of the U.S. Credit Agreement were $585.9 million and $617.2 million, respectively. There were no borrowings outstanding under the revolving credit facility as of either November 30, 2016 or November 30, 2015 . There were no outstanding standby letters of credit under the U.S. Credit Agreement as of November 30, 2016 and there was $1.5 million outstanding as of November 30, 2015 .
SYNNEX Canada Limited, or SYNNEX Canada, has a revolving line of credit arrangement with a group of financial institutions, or the Canadian Revolving Arrangement which has a maximum commitment of CAD100.0 million , or $74.4 million , and includes an accordion feature to increase the maximum commitment by an additional CAD25.0 million , or $18.6 million , to CAD125.0 million , or $93.0 million , at SYNNEX Canada’s request. SYNNEX Canada has granted a security interest in substantially all of its assets in favor of the lender under the Canadian Revolving Arrangement. SYNNEX Canada’s obligations under the Canadian Revolving Arrangement are also secured by a pledge over a portion of the equity interests beneficially owned by us. The interest rate applicable under the Canadian Revolving Arrangement is equal to (i) the Canadian base rate plus a margin of 0.75% for a Base Rate Loan in Canadian Dollars, (ii) the US base rate plus a margin of 0.75% for a Base Rate Loan in U.S. Dollars, and (iii) the Bankers’ Acceptance rate, or BA, plus a margin of 2.00% for a BA Rate Loan. The Canadian base rate means the greater of (a) the prime rate determined by a major Canadian financial institution and (b) the one-month Canadian Dealer Offered Rate (the average rate applicable to Canadian Dollar bankers’ acceptances for the applicable period) plus 1.50%. The US base rate means the greater of (a) a reference rate determined by a major Canadian financial institution for US dollar loans made to Canadian borrowers and (b) the US federal funds rate plus 0.50%. A fee of 0.25% per annum is payable with respect to the unused portion of the commitment. The credit arrangement expires in May 2017. As of November 30, 2016 , there were no borrowings outstanding under the Canadian Revolving Arrangement, and there was $9.7 million outstanding as of November 30, 2015 . The Canadian Revolving Arrangement also provides a sublimit of $5.0 million for the issuance of standby letters of credit. As of both November 30, 2016 and November 30, 2015 , there were no letters of credit outstanding.    
SYNNEX Canada has a term loan associated with the purchase of its logistics facility in Guelph, Canada. The interest rate for the unpaid principal amount is a fixed rate of 5.374% per annum. The final maturity date for repayment of the unpaid principal is April 1, 2017. The balances outstanding on the term loan as of November 30, 2016 and 2015 was $4.1 million and $4.7 million , respectively.
SYNNEX Infotec has a credit agreement with a group of financial institutions for a maximum commitment of JPY14.0 billion , or $122.3 million . The credit agreement is comprised of a JPY6.0 billion , or $52.4 million , term loan and a JPY8.0 billion , or $69.9 million , short-term revolving credit facility. The interest rate for the term loan and revolving credit facility is based on the Tokyo Interbank Offered Rate (“TIBOR”) plus a margin of 0.70% per annum. The unused line fee on the revolving credit facility is 0.10% per annum. This credit facility expires in November 2018. As of November 30, 2016 and November 30, 2015 , the balances outstanding under the term loan component of the facility were $52.4 million and $48.7 million , respectively. Balances outstanding under the revolving credit facility were $28.8 million and $47.9 million , respectively, as of November 30, 2016 and 2015 . The term loan can be repaid at any time prior to expiration date without penalty. We have guaranteed the obligations of SYNNEX Infotec under this facility.

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Our Indian subsidiaries have credit facilities with a financial institution to borrow up to an aggregate amount of $14.0 million . The interest rate under the credit facilities is based on LIBOR plus a margin of 0.90% per annum. The credit facilities can be terminated at any time by our Indian subsidiaries or the financial institution. We guarantee the obligations under these credit facilities. As of November 30, 2016 , $12.0 million was outstanding. As of November 30, 2015 , there were no outstanding borrowings under these credit facilities.
As of November 30, 2016 and 2015 , we recorded $8.7 million and $2.6 million , respectively, on our Consolidated Balance Sheets in obligations attributable to SYNNEX Infotec for the sale and financing of this subsidiary’s approved accounts receivable and notes receivable with recourse provisions and outstanding capital lease obligations.
We also maintain other local currency denominated lines of credit with financial institutions at certain locations outside the United States aggregating $28.8 million . Interest rates and other terms of borrowing under these lines of credit vary from country to country, depending on local market conditions. As of November 30, 2016 , $8.7 million was outstanding under these facilities. As of November 30, 2015 , we had no borrowings outstanding under these various facilities.
The maximum commitment amounts for local currency credit facilities have been translated into United States Dollars at November 30, 2016 exchange rates.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have financing programs in the United States and Japan under which trade accounts receivable of certain customers may be sold, without recourse, to financial institutions. Available capacity under these programs is dependent upon the level of our trade accounts receivable eligible to be sold into these programs and the financial institutions’ willingness to purchase such receivables. At November 30, 2016 and 2015 , we had a total of $12.6 million and $3.1 million , respectively, of trade accounts receivable sold to and held by the financial institutions under these programs.
Covenant Compliance  
Our credit facilities have a number of covenants and restrictions that, among other things, require us to maintain specified financial ratios and satisfy certain financial condition tests. They also limit our ability to incur additional debt, make intercompany loans, pay dividends and make other types of distributions, make certain acquisitions, repurchase our stock, create liens, cancel debt owed to us, enter into agreements with affiliates, modify the nature of our business, enter into sale-leaseback transactions, make certain investments, enter into new real estate leases, transfer and sell assets, cancel or terminate any material contracts and merge or consolidate. As of November 30, 2016 , we were in compliance with all material covenants for the above arrangements.
Contractual Obligations 
Our contractual obligations consist of future payments due under our loans, capital leases and operating lease arrangements. The following table summarizes our contractual obligations at November 30, 2016 :  
 
Payments Due by Period
 
Total
 
Less than
1 Year
 
1 - 3
Years
 
3 - 5
Years
 
> 5
Years
 
(in thousands)
Contractual Obligations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal debt payments
$
966,927

 
$
363,725

 
$
165,701

 
$
437,501

 
$

Interest on debt
65,024

 
19,672

 
37,629

 
7,723

 

Non-cancellable capital leases
39

 
12

 
24

 
3

 

Non-cancellable operating leases
374,965

 
81,395

 
134,347

 
81,931

 
77,292

Total
$
1,406,955

 
$
464,804

 
$
337,701

 
$
527,158

 
$
77,292

 

Guarantees
We, as the ultimate parent, guaranteed the obligations of SYNNEX Investment Holdings Corporation up to $35.0 million in connection with the sale of China Civilink (Cayman), which operated in China as HiChina Web Solutions, to Alibaba.com Limited. The guarantee expires in fiscal year 2018.
We are contingently liable under agreements, without expiration dates, to repurchase repossessed inventory acquired by flooring companies as a result of default on floor plan financing arrangements by our customers. There have been no

41

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repurchases through November 30, 2016 under these agreements and we are not aware of any pending customer defaults or repossession obligations. As the Company does not have access to information regarding the amount of inventory purchased from the Company still on hand with the customer at any point in time, the Company’s repurchase obligations relating to inventory cannot be reasonably estimated. As of November 30, 2016 and November 30, 2015 , accounts receivable subject to flooring agreements were $65.1 million and $55.3 million , respectively. For more information on our third-party revolving short-term financing arrangements, see Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
As of November 30, 2016 , we have established a reserve of $32.8 million for unrecognized tax benefits. As we are unable to reasonably predict the timing of settlement of these guarantees and the reserve for unrecognized tax benefits, the table above excludes such liabilities. 
Related Party Transactions  
We have a business relationship with MiTAC Holdings, a publicly-traded company in Taiwan, which began in 1992 when MiTAC Holdings became our primary investor through its affiliates. As of November 30, 2016 and 2015 , MiTAC Holdings and its affiliates beneficially owned approximately 24% and 25% , respectively, of our outstanding common stock. Matthew Miau, our Chairman Emeritus of the Board of Directors and director, is the Chairman of MiTAC Holdings’ and a director or officer of MiTAC Holdings’ affiliates.
The shares owned by MiTAC Holdings are held by the following entities:
 
As of November 30, 2016
 
(shares in thousands)
MiTAC Holdings (1)
5,449

Synnex Technology International Corp. (2)
4,209

Total
9,658

_________________________
(1)
Shares are held via Silver Star Developments Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of MiTAC Holdings. Excludes 374 thousand shares directly held by Matthew Miau and 218 thousand shares indirectly held by Mathew Miau through a charitable remainder trust.
(2)
Synnex Technology International Corp. (“Synnex Technology International”) is a separate entity from the Company and is a publicly-traded corporation in Taiwan. Shares are held via Peer Development Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Synnex Technology International. MiTAC Holdings owns a noncontrolling interest of 8.7% in MiTAC Incorporated, a privately-held Taiwanese company, which in turn holds a noncontrolling interest of 13.6% in Synnex Technology International. Neither MiTAC Holdings nor Mr. Miau is affiliated with any person(s), entity, or entities that hold a majority interest in MiTAC Incorporated.
MiTAC Holdings generally has significant influence over us regarding matters submitted to stockholders for consideration, including any merger or acquisition of ours. Among other things, this could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change of control over us.
We purchased inventories from MiTAC Holdings and its affiliates totaling $170.1 million , $87.1 million and $102.8 million during fiscal years 2016 , 2015 and 2014 , respectively. Our sales to MiTAC Holdings and its affiliates during fiscal years 2016 , 2015 and 2014 totaled $1.8 million , $1.3 million and $4.1 million , respectively. In addition, we received reimbursements of rent and overhead costs for facilities used by MiTAC Holdings and its affiliates amounting to $0.2 million , $0.1 million and $0.1 million during fiscal years ended November 30, 2016 , 2015 and 2014 , respectively.
Our business relationship with MiTAC Holdings and its affiliates has been informal and is not governed by long-term commitments or arrangements with respect to pricing terms, revenue or capacity commitments. We negotiate pricing and other material terms on a case-by-case basis with MiTAC Holdings. We have adopted a policy requiring that material transactions with MiTAC Holdings or its related parties be approved by our Audit Committee, which is composed solely of independent directors. In addition, Matthew Miau’s compensation is approved by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, which is also composed solely of independent directors.
Synnex Technology International is a publicly-traded corporation in Taiwan that currently provides distribution and fulfillment services to various markets in Asia and Australia, and is also our potential competitor. MiTAC Holdings and its affiliates are not restricted from competing with us. 

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Recent Accounting Pronouncements  
For a summary of recent accounting pronouncements and the anticipated effects on our consolidated financial statements see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated by reference herein.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk  
Foreign Currency Risk  
We are exposed to foreign currency risk in the ordinary course of business. We manage cash flow exposures for our major countries using a combination of forward contracts. Principal currencies hedged are the Canadian Dollar, British Pound, Japanese Yen and the Euro. These instruments are generally short-term in nature, with typical maturities of six months or less. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes. 
The following table presents the hypothetical changes in fair values of our outstanding foreign currency derivative instruments as of November 30, 2016 and 2015 , arising from an instantaneous strengthening or weakening of the U.S. dollar by 5%, 10% and 15% (in thousands). 
 
Loss on Derivative Instruments Given a
Weakening of U.S. dollar by X Percent
 
Gain (Loss)
Assuming No
Change in
Exchange Rate
 
Gain on Derivative Instruments Given a
Strengthening of U.S. dollar by X Percent
 
15%
 
10%
 
5%
 
5%
 
10%
 
15%
Forward contracts at November 30, 2016
$
(15,259
)
 
$
(9,310
)
 
$
(3,986
)
 
$
721

 
$
5,140

 
$
9,080

 
$
12,678

Forward contracts at November 30, 2015
$
(22,488
)
 
$
(13,664
)
 
$
(5,769
)
 
$
1,287

 
$
7,766

 
$
13,611

 
$
18,947

We do not apply hedge accounting to our forward contracts. Our foreign exchange contracts are marked-to-market and any material gains and losses on our hedge contracts resulting from a hypothetical, instantaneous change in the strength of the U.S. dollar would be significantly offset by mark-to-market gains and losses on the corresponding assets and liabilities being hedged. 
Interest Rate Risk  
The interest obligations of certain debt obligations have floated relative to major interest rate benchmarks. To manage interest rate risk on the U.S. dollar-denominated floating-rate term loan maturing in 2020, the Company entered into interest rate swaps in May 2015 with an aggregate notional amount of $400 million , which effectively converted a portion of the floating rate debt to a fixed interest rate. The interest rate swaps are accounted as cash flow hedges. A 15% variation in our interest rates would not have a material impact on the fair value of our swaps.
The following tables present hypothetical interest expense related to our outstanding borrowings with variable interest rates (after considering the impact of the above mentioned swaps) for the years ended November 30, 2016 and 2015 , arising from hypothetical parallel shifts in the respective countries’ yield curves, of plus or minus 5%, 10% and 15% (in thousands). 
 
Interest Expense Given an Interest
Rate Decrease by X Percent
 
Actual Interest
Expense Assuming
No Change in
Interest Rate
 
Interest Expense Given an Interest
Rate Increase by X Percent
 
15%
 
10%
 
5%
 
5%
 
10%
 
15%
SYNNEX US
$
6,233

 
$
6,408

 
$
6,583

 
$
6,759

 
$
6,934

 
$
7,109

 
$
7,284

SYNNEX Infotec
694

 
701

 
709

 
716

 
723

 
731

 
738

Indian subsidiaries
138

 
146

 
154

 
162

 
170

 
178

 
186

Total for the year ended November 30, 2016
$
7,065

 
$
7,255

 
$
7,446

 
$
7,637

 
$
7,827

 
$
8,018

 
$
8,208


43


 
Interest Expense Given an Interest
Rate Decrease by X Percent
 
Actual Interest
Expense Assuming
No Change in
Interest Rate
 
Interest Expense Given an Interest
Rate Increase by X Percent
 
15%
 
10%
 
5%
 
5%
 
10%
 
15%
SYNNEX US
$
4,924

 
$
4,989

 
$
5,055

 
$
5,122

 
$
5,188

 
$
5,255

 
$
5,320

SYNNEX Canada
285

 
302

 
319

 
336

 
352

 
369

 
386

SYNNEX Infotec
833

 
843

 
852

 
822

 
870

 
879

 
889

Total for the year ended November 30, 2015
$
6,042

 
$
6,134

 
$
6,226

 
$
6,280

 
$
6,410

 
$
6,503

 
$
6,595

Equity Price Risk  
The equity price risk associated with our marketable equity securities as of November 30, 2016 and 2015 is not material in relation to our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flow. Marketable equity securities include shares of common stock. The investments are classified as available-for-sale securities, recorded at fair market value based on quoted market prices and unrealized gains and losses are included in other comprehensive income. Realized gains and losses, which are calculated based on the specific identification method, are recorded in operations as incurred.


Table of Contents

Item 8.     Financial Statements and Supplementary Data  
INDEX
 
 
 
Page
Consolidated Financial Statements of SYNNEX Corporation
 
 
 
Financial Statement Schedule
 
Financial statement schedules not listed above are either omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the Consolidated Financial Statements or in the Notes thereto.

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Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting  
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f). Our internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Our internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of ours are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.  
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.  
In accordance with guidance issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission, companies are permitted to exclude acquisitions from their final assessment of internal control over financial reporting for the first fiscal year in which the acquisition occurred. Our management’s evaluation of internal control over financial reporting excluded the internal control activities of the Minacs business we acquired on August 1, 2016, as discussed in Note 3, “Acquisitions,” to the Consolidated Financial Statements. During the year ended November 30, 2016, the Minacs business contributed approximately $157 million to the Company’s consolidated revenue. As of November 30, 2016, our total assets included approximately $555 million which were specifically attributable to the Minacs business. We have included the financial results of the Minacs business in the consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition.
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework). Based on this assessment, our management concludes that, as of November 30, 2016 , our internal control over financial reporting was effective based on those criteria.  
The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of November 30, 2016 has been audited by KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears on page 48 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
SYNNEX Corporation:
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of SYNNEX Corporation and subsidiaries (the Company) as of November 30, 2016 and 2015, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three‑year period ended November 30, 2016. In connection with our audits of the consolidated financial statements, we also have audited the financial statement schedule of valuation and qualifying accounts as listed in the accompanying index. These consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of November 30, 2016 and 2015, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three‑year period ended November 30, 2016, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic consolidated financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of November 30, 2016, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), and our report dated January 26, 2017 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.


/s/ KPMG LLP

Santa Clara, California
January 26, 2017

47


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The Board of Directors and Stockholders
SYNNEX Corporation:
We have audited SYNNEX Corporation (the Company) and its subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting as of November 30, 2016, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) . The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of November 30, 2016, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
The Company acquired the Minacs group of companies (collectively, Minacs) on August 1, 2016, and management excluded from its assessment of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of November 30, 2016, Minacs’ internal control over financial reporting associated with total assets of $555 million and total revenue of $157 million included in the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended November 30, 2016. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting of the Company also excluded an evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting of Minacs.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of November 30, 2016 and 2015, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended November 30, 2016, and our report dated January 26, 2017 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements .


/s/ KPMG LLP

Santa Clara, California
January 26, 2017

48


SYNNEX CORPORATION  
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(currency and share amounts in thousands, except for par value)  
 
November 30,
2016
 
November 30,
2015
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
380,717